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NABTEB Catering And Food
(a) THE THREE CATEGORIES INTO WHICH KITCHEN EQUIPMENT MAY BE CLASSIFIED AND GIVE TWO EXAMPLES OF EQUIPMENT IN EACH CATEGORY.
Kitchen equipment may be classified into
(i) Large kitchen equipment e.g. ranges, steamers, boiling pans, fish-fryers, sinks, tables.
(ii) Mechanical equipment e.g. peelers, mixers, refrigerators, deep freezers, dish-washers.
(iii) Utensils and small equipment e.g. pots, pans, whisks, bowls, spoons, mandolin, sieves,
chopping boards, rolling pins, cutting bowl
(b) STATE EIGHT POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED IN SELECTING AND PURCHASING KITCHEN EQUIPMENT.
Points to be considered in the selection and purchasing kitchen equipments are:
(1) Overall dimensions-In relation to available space
(2) Weight – can the floor support the weight?
(3) Fuel supply -is the existing fuel sufficient to take the increase.
(4) Drainage – where necessary, are there adequate facilities?.
(5) Water – where necessary, is it to hard?
(6) Use – does the food to be produced justify good use?
(7) Capacity – can it cook the quantities of food required efficiently?
(8) Time – can it cook the given quantities of food in the time available?
(9) Ease – is it easy for staff to handle, control and use properly?
(10) Maintenance – is it for staff to clean and maintain?
(11) Attachments – is it necessary to use additional equipment or attachment?
(12) Extraction – does it require extraction facilities for fumes or steam?
(13) Noise – does it have acceptable noise level?
(14) Construction – is it well made and are all handles, knobs and switches sturdy and heat resistance?
(15) Spare parts ”“ are they and replacements parts easily obtained?
(a) WRITE BRIEFLY ON THE CLEANING OF COPPER EQUIPMENT
CLEANING OF COPPER EQUIPMENT
To keep large quantities of copper equipment, clean the following points should be observed:
(i) Two large sinks, into which the pots may be completely immersed, should be available. The
water in one sink should be capable of being raised to boiling point.
(ii) All dirty pans should be well soaked for a few minutes in boiling water to which soda have been
(iii) They should be well scoured, using either a brush or wire wool or similar agent with scouring
(iv) The pans are then rinsed in clean hot water, and placed upside down to dry.
(v) The copper surfaces if tarnished may be cleared with a paste made from equal quantities of
silver sand, salt, and flour mixed with vinegar, the pans are then thoroughly rinsed and dried.
Alternatively, a commercial cleaner may be used.
2. EXPLAIN EACH OF THE FOLLOWING METHODS OF COOKING.
i. BOILING: Boiling is the cooking of prepared foods at boiling point. This could be in water,
court-bouillon, milk or stock. The purpose of boiling is to cook the food so that it is: (a) safe to
eat. (b) easy to digest. (c) Pleasant to eat with agreeable flavor. (d) suitable texture, tender or
slightly firm according to the food.
There are two (2)ways of boiling: (a) place food into boiling liquid, reboil, then reduce the heat
for gentle boiling to take place, this is known as simmering. (b) cover food with cold liquid,
bring to the boil, then reduce heat to all food to simmer.
(i) FRYING: Frying can be done in 2 ways: shallow frying and deep frying.
SHALLOW FRYING: is the cooking of food in small quantity of pre-heated fat or oil in a shallow
pan or on a flat surface (griddle plate).(a) The purpose of shallow frying is to give a variety to
diet and the menu, by making food palatable, digestible and safe to eat. (b) To brown food
giving it a different colour and interesting attractive flavor.
There are four methods of using a shallow fat or oil: shallow fry, sautÃ©, griddle and stir fry.
1. Shallow fry: The cooking of food in a small amount of fat or oil in frying pan or santÃ© pan. The
presentation side of the food should be fried first, as this side will have a better appearance
because the fat is clean, then turn so that both sides are cooked and colored. Foods that can be
cooked by this method or cuts of fish and poultry, meat and small whole fish. Eggs and pancakes
and certain vegetables are cooked by this method.
2. SautÃ©: This term is used: (a) when cooking tender cuts of meat and poultry in a sautÃ© or frying pan.
After the food is cooked on both sides, it is removed from the pan, the fat is removed and the pan
deglazed with stock or wine. This then forms an important past of the finished sauce. In this type of
cooking the meat of fish is completely cooked, the sauce also cooked, the two only come together
for service. (b)SautÃ© is also used when cooking for example potatoes, onions, kidney, when they are cut into slices or pieces and tossed (santÃ© means to jump or toss) in hot shallow fat or oil in a
frying pan till golden brown and cooked.
3. Griddle- foods cooked on a griddle (solid metal plate) e.g. hamburgers, sausages, sliced onions are
placed on a slightly oil or greased griddle turned frequently during cooking. Pancakes may be
cooked this way-but are turned only once.
4. Stir Fry- Fast frying in a cook or frying pan in a little fat or oil eg vegetables, strips of beef, chicken.
Examples of food which are shallow fried:
(i) Eggs-omelettes, fried.
(ii) Fish-meuniere: sole, plaice, trout, cod, harming
(iii) Meat-noisettes, kidneys, beef, stroganow
(iv) Poultry- chicken sautÃ© chasseur, chicken pannentier
(v) Vegetables- cauliflower, onions, chicory
(vi) Sweets and pastries- jam omelettes, pancakes.
(vii) Savouries- croquet monsieur.
It is a quick method of cooking prime cuts of meat and poultry.
DEEP FRYING: This is cooking the food in pre-heated deep oil or clarified fat. The purpose of deep frying is
(a) To cook appetizing foods of various kinds thus giving variety to the diet and menu.
(b) To produce food with an appetizing golden brown, colour, crisp, palatable and safe to eat. These
are conventional methods of deep frying foods with the exception of potatoes. These foods are
coated with milk and flour, egg and bread creams better or pastry to (a) protect the surface of the
food from intense heat. (b)prevent the escape of moisture and nutrients (c) modify the rapid
penetration of heat. The food is usually placed into deep pre-heated oil or fat , fried until cooked,
well drains and served.
(c) Partial-deep frying is known as blanching and may be applied to chipped potatoes. Examples of
deep fried foods:
Eggs ”“ scotch eggs, French fried eggs, Nigerian fried eggs.
Fish- scampi, fish cakes, Nigerian fried fish
Chicken- cutlets, Nigerian fried chicken
Savoury- cheese fritters, chin-chin, puff-puff, buns, kokoro, kulikuli, akara
Potatoes- croquette, chips, almond potatoes, sweet potatoes
Yams, plantain, Vegetables, onions
Pastry and sweets- doughnuts, puff-puff.
STEWING: This is the slow cooking of food cut into pieces and cooked in the minimum amount of liquid
(water-stock or sauce); the food and liquid are served together.
PURPOSE: Because stewing is both economical and nutritional, cheaper cuts of meat and poultry, which
would be unsuitable for roasting and grilling, can be made tender and palatable.
Stewing produces acceptable flavor, texture and eating quality.
FOODS COOKED BY STEWING
Vegetables- marrow provencale, yam potage.
(a) Nutrients are conserved
(b) Tenderizes tough foods
(c) Economical in labour because foods can be cooked in bulk.
(d) Correct slow cooking results in very little evaporation.
(e) The meat juices which escape from the meat during cooking are retained in the liquid which is part
of the stew.
BRASINIG: Braising is the method of cooking food in the oven unlike roasting or baking the food is cooked
in liquid in a covered pan, casserole or cocotte. It is a combination of stewing and pat roasting.
The purpose of braising is:
(a) To give variety to the diet and menu
(b) To make food tender, digestible, palatable and safe to eat.
(c) To produce and enhance flavor, texture and eating quality.
There are two methods of braising:
(a) Brown-braising, used for joints and portions-sized cuts of meat .
(b) White braising, used for vegetables and sweet breads
Examples of foods which are braised:
Farinaceous ”“ rice
Meat ”“ lamb, heart, chops
Beef ”“ olives, joints, liver
Veal ”“ shoulder
Poultry ”“ duck
Vegetables ”“ celery, onions.
The advantages of braising are:
1. Tougher, less expensive meats and poultry can be used.
2. Maximum flavor and nutritional value are retained.
3. Variety of presentation and flavor is given to the menu.
ROASTING: Roasting is cooking in dry heat with the aid of fat or oil in an oven or a spit. Radiant heat is the
means of cooking when using a spit; oven roasting is a combination of convection or radiation. The purpose
of roasting is to cook food so that it is tender, easy to digest, safe to eat and palatable. It is also to give the
Examples of foods suitable for roasting meat:
Lamb ”“ best ”“ end.
Beef ”“ sirloin.
Pork ”“ leg
Veal – stuffed breast
Poultry and game ”“ chicken, duck,pheasant.
Vegetables ”“potatoes , parsnips.
(vi) BAKING: This is cooking of food by dry heat in an oven in which the action of the dry
convention heat is modified by stream.
The purpose of baking is:
(a) To make the food digestible, palatable and safe to eat.
(b) To create an eye-appeal through colour and feature and produce an enjoyable eating quality.
(c) Baked food lends variety to the menu and are popular in the diet.
Examples of foods that are cooked by baking:
(a) Eggs ”“ in cocottes
(b) Meat ”“ steak and kidney pie, toad in the – hole, Cornish pastries, shepherds pie, chicken vole ”“ au ”“
vent, baked potatoes, baked apples, fruit flan baked egg custard, fruits buns, cakes.
Advantages of baking:
1. A wide variety of sweets and savoury foods can be produced.
2. Bulk cooking can be achieved with uniformity of colour and degree of cooking.
3. There is straight forward access for loading and removing of items.
(vii) SIMMERING: This is another method of boiling. In simmering the food is placed into boiling
liquid, reboiled and the heat is reduced for gentle boiling to take place.
POACHING: This is the cooking of foods in the required amount of liquid of just below boiling point. The purpose of poaching food is to cook food so that it is: (a) easy to digest (b) safe to eat (c) a suitable tender texture.
There are two methods poaching (i) shallow poaching (ii) deep poaching. Examples of poached food are:
Eggs ”“ poached
Farinaceous – gnocchi poisienne
Fish ”“ shallow poaching
Fruits ”“ fresh and dried
2. (b) WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES BETWEEN ENGLISH AND CONTINENTAL BREAK FAST? ANSWER:
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ENGLISH AND CONTINENTAL BREAKFAST ARE
ENGLISH BREAK FAST
1. Consists of a number of courses usually 3 or 4 with a choice within a course.
1. Consists of hot snacks like croissant/brioches or hot toast, coffee or tea.
2. The cover laid is a table d’hoÌ‚te without a soup spoon
2. The cover here consists of side plate, side knife, napkin and sugar basin
3. It includes cooked dishes
3. It does not include cooked dishes.
4.It is not inclusive in the room charge.
4.It is inclusive in the room charge.
1. Both English and Continental breakfast are served in the morning. 2. Tea and coffee are both types of breakfast.
1. Both English and Continental breakfast are served in the morning.
2. Tea and coffee are both types of breakfast.
3. Bread and preserves are served in both types of breakfast.
3. (a) LIST EIGHT TYPES OF SWEETS,(FOUR COLD AND FOUR HOT)
Assorted ice ”“ cream
Baked egg custard
Baked apple dumplings
Baked jam rolls
Sponge cakes and cakes
Pine apple Creole
Queen of puddings
3. (b) STATE RECIPE FOR A NAMED HOT SWEET
ANSWER: RECIPE FOR SWISS ROLL
ii. 100g castor sugar
iii. 100g flour(soft)
iv. 250ml eggs
v. 175g castor sugar
vi. 125G FLOUR(SOFT)
1. Whisk the eggs and sugar with a balloon, whisk in a bowl or a pan of hot sugar.
2. Continue until the mixture is light, creamy and double in bulk.
3. Remove from heat and whisk cold and thick (ribbon stage).
4. Fold in the flour very gently.
5. Grease a Swiss roll tin and line with greased grease proof paper.
6. Pour in Genoese mixture and bake (220o
c, Reg 7) approximate 6 min.
7. Turn out on to a sheet of paper sprinkled with castor sugar.
8. Remove the paper from the swiss roll, spread with warm jam.
9. Roll into a fairly tight roll, leaving the paper on the outside for a few minutes.
10. Remove the paper and allow to cool on a rack.
BANANA FLAN RECIPE
100g sugar paste
125ml pastry cream
2 table spoons, apricot glaze
1. Cook flan blind, allow to cool.
2. Make pastry cream or custard sauce and pour while hot into the flan case.
3. Allow to set. Peel and slice the bananas neatly.
4. Arrange over lapping layers, on the pastry cream, Coat with glaze.
RECIPE FOR JAM TARTLETS
100g sugar paste
1. Prepare for the tartlets as for fruit tartlets. Prick the bottom with a fork
2. Add a little jam in each.
3c. (i) PREPARATION OF CUSTARD SAUCE
1. Dilute the custard powder with a little of the milk.
2. Boil the remainder of the milk
3. Pour a little of boiled milk as to the diluted custard powder.
4. Return to the saucepan.
5. Stir the boil and mix in the sugar
(i) PREPARATION OF ALMOND SAUCE
1. Dilute the corn flour with a little of the milk.
2. Boil remainder of the milk, whisk on to the corn flour.
3. Return to the pan, stir to the boil, and simmer 3 ”“ 4 min.
4. Mix in the sugar and essence. Pass through a strainer.
4 . TRANSLATE THE FOLLOWING FRENCH CULINARY TERMS INTO ENGLISH
A roasting spit
A side board of food or self service table
A fire proof dish
5 (a) MENTION SIX TYPES OF FOOD NUTRIENTS AND STATE ONE SOURCE OF EACH TYPE
Fish, meat, game, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, beans, peas, nuts, grains of cereals such as wheat
Blood of animals, fruit and honey, can sugar, beer, milk, rice, burley, tapioca, flour, corn flour, ground rice, garri, potatoes, yam, cassava, peas, beans, cornflakes, shredded wheat, bread, cake, biscuits, spaghetti
Milk, cheese, cream, eggs, meat, fish oil, nuts, cakes, biscuits, poultry, sausage, pork, bacon and ham
Fish liver oil, kidney, liver, butter, margarine, cheese, eggs, apricots, spinach, watercress, carrots, tomatoes, yeast, whole meal bread, dairy products, green vegetables, grapefruit, bananas, oranges, lemon
Bones of tinned fish, milk and milk products, whole meal bread, white bread, liver, kidney, cheese, bones, vegetables(green), drinking water
Drinks of all kinds, foods such as fruits and vegetables, meat, fish, combustion or oxidation.
Protein is an essential part of all living matter; it is therefore required for the growth of the body for repair of body tissues.
It provides the body with most of the energy.
Provides the body with heat and energy and certain fats provide vitamins
Assists children’s growth. Helps body to resist Infection. Enables people to see well. Necessary for healthy bones and teeth. Keeps body system in good condition. Encourages growth of body. Assists in healing of cuts and uniting broken bones.
Required for building bones and teeth, clotting of blood, working of muscles, require for the building of the haemoglobin and therefore necessary for transporting oxygen.
Required for all body fluids, absorption, digestion, metabolism, excreting, secretion, playing a part in regulation of body temperature of respiration.
5C. write a three cause menu for an 80-year-old guest who has made reservation in Top Restaurant taking
into Consideration the nutritional Requirement for his age.
1. Pineapple juice
Cream or tomatoes soup
2. Spaghetti bolognaise
Or vegetable soup with fresh fish, agidi
3. Baked egg custard.
6A. Explain the importance of personal Hygiene to a waitress and give FOUR reasons for hygienic handling
of food during storage and preparation.
How a waitress looks and first impression of the guest go a long way to how the guest assesses
the hygiene standard of the establishment. It is of importance that the waiter looks clean to make for
Personal cleanliness is important in order that the waitress does not transfer bacteria from her person onto
Personal cleanliness will earn the waitress self-respect also respect from the customer.
Personal hygiene and cleanliness will help boost the confidence, the waitress has in herself and improve
REASONS FOR HYGIENE HANDLING OF FOOD DURING STORAGE AND PREPARATION.
1. One of the most important ways to prevent contamination of food is the correct storage of food.
2. If large quantities of food e.g. minced beef are left in one container the outside cools but the centre
is still warm. When reheated the time taken to bring such large quantity to the boil is sufficient to
all bacteria to continue to multiply. If the food is not boiled enough, food poisoning can occur.
6B. STATE THREE CAUSES OF FOOD POISONING AND NAME THREE TYPES OF FOOD POISONING.
CAUSES OF FOOD POISONING:
Food poisoning results when harmful bacteria are in food and is eaten. They may be harmful because:
(A) Chemicals have entered food accidentally during growth, preparation or cooking of the food.
(B) Germs (harmful bacteria)have entered food from humans, animals or other sources and the
bacteria themselves, or the toxins (poisons) produced in food by certain bacteria, have caused the
food to be harmful. The greatest number of food poisons is caused by bacteria.
TYPES OF FOOD POISONING:
1. The salmonella group (cause of food poisoning because of large number of bacteria in the food).
2. Staphylococcus aureus.
3. Clostridium perfringers.
6c. OUTLINE SIX WAYS OF PREVENTING FOOD POISONING
1. Food handlers must prevent bacteria from multiplying by covering cooked food.
2. Food premises must be kept clean.
3. Food handlers should avoid coughing or sneezing over food
4. Food handlers should wash their hands after using the toilet.
5. Food handlers should obey all hygiene laws.
6. All kitchen equipment and utensils should be kept scrupulously clean at all times.
7. Dust bins and swill bin must be kept covered at all times.
8. Bins must be kept clean and sprayed with insecticide.
9. Food should be stored at the correct temperature.
10. Food handlers should wear clean uniform to prevent the incidence of transferring bacteria to food.
11. Food handlers should also be clean in their person, which means they must bath at least once a
day, and have clean short nails.
7. Prawn cocktail,
Chicken a la king,
Braised rice, Buttered Spinach
Using the above menu, explain what happens, the moment two guests (a male and a female) walk into the
restaurant for a meal, until they depart after the meal consumption.
The procedure for serving above meal is as follows:
1. As soon as the two guests enter the restaurant, they are welcome by the reception head waiter
who checks to know whether they have a booking. If not, a table is allocated to them.
2. The reception head waiter asks if the guests would like an aperitif in the lounge or reception area
or prefer to have one at the table.
3. The two guests are then taken to their table where the lady is seated first and then the gentle man.
The reception head waiter indicates who the host is to the station head waiter.
4. The station waiter unfolds the serviette of the lady and places over her laps and then does same for
5. The sommelier comes to the table to offer the wine list with which he takes the order the nonalcoholic wine.
6. The water glass is turned up and water is served.
7. Menu is presented to the host and his or her guest.
8. The station head waiter took the order for the main dish i.e. prawn cocktail, chicken a la king and
9. The sommelier comes to table to see if any wine is required with the meal, taking order from the
10. The waiter changes the covers by removing the soup spoon since there is no soup on the menu.
After removing the soup spoon, he adjusts the cover.
11. The prawn cocktail is then served in glasses. A teaspoon and a small fork are laid for eating it.
Accompaniments are lemon segment, peppermill, sometimes cayenne pepper and traditionally
brown bread and butter; although this is less common now.
12. First course is cleared through the right.
13. Joint plates are laid for the main course i. e. for chicken ala king, braised rice and vegetables.
14. The serving is for the lady first. The chicken a la king is served at the 6’oclock end of the plate,
followed by the rice and vegetables. The gentleman is served next.
15. The sommelier should top the wine and water glasses from time to time.
16. The main dish is cleared to include the side plates and side knives, cruet, butter dishes.
17. Crumb down.
18. Offer the menu for guests to choose a sweet dish. Take order for sweet.
19. Lay sweet covers and
20. The sommelier clears wine glasses and the wine bottle.
21. Serve the sweet course,- the lady first and then the gentleman.
22. Clear the sweet course.
23. Take coffee order.
24. The coffee service is placed on the table. Serve the coffee. Lady first and then the gentleman. Offer
more coffee at appropriate time.
25. Bill is then presented to host.
26. The guests are seen off the restaurant.
27. Clear down the table. Re-lay if cover if necessary.
1 (a) THE IMPORTANCE OF PERSONAL HYGIENE TO A WAITRESS
Personal hygiene reduces the possibility of infection. The main points to note are:
1. Regular washing of the skin which improves personal freshness (removing perspiration)
2. Well groomed hair must be neatly cut or covered where necessary.
3. Clean hands and nails. No nicotine stains wash basins, soap, towels, nailbrushes, hot water, all
these must be provided.
4. Neat in appearance, uniform must be smart and clean and well starched.
5. Clean and comfortable shoes are essential as staff are on their feet most of the day.
6. Coughing and sneezing over or near foods must be discouraged as this spreads infection.
7. Wash your hands after leaving the toilets. (Notices should be displayed to this effect)
8. Adequate provision should be made for drying hands with disposable papers or clean towel. To
avoid the possibility of cross-infection, hot air dryers or disposable paper towels or clean cloth
towel should be used wherever possible.
9. All cuts and burns should be treated or covered immediately to avoid infection.
10. All staff with minor sickness such as cold, stomach upsets etc. should be reported immediately to
the sick-bay or the Doctor for a check-up before being allowed to continue work.
11. No smoking should be allowed while preparing or handling food.
12. No one is allowed to sleep in the kitchen or serving area (Restaurant).
REASONS FOR THE HYGIENIC HANDLING OF FOOD DURING STORAGE AND PREPARATION.
1. To reduce the possibility of infection to a minimum.
2. To avoid accidents by using correct items of equipment for the service of food and never use bare
3. To maintain high standards of personal hygiene as possible in order to prevent food poisoning.
4. To protect the foods from vermin and insects.
5. To maintain good working conditions.
6. To maintain equipment in good repair and in clean condition.
7. To correct the storage of foodstuffs at the right temperature.
8. To make adequate provision of cleaning facilities and cleaning equipment.
9. To know the correct reheating of food.
10. To comply with the requirements of food hygiene regulations.
1b) (i) THREE CAUSES OF FOOD POISONING
1. Chemicals (certain chemicals may accidentally enter food and cause food poisoning.
2. Germs (harmful bacteria)
(ii) THREE TYPES OF FOOD POISONING BACTERIA
1. Salmonella group
2. Staphylococcus Aureus
3. Clostridium perfringens
4. Escherichia Coli (E.COLI)
5. Bovine spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)
1C) FOOD POISONING CAN BE PREVENTED BY:
1. High standards of personal hygiene
2. Attention to physical fitness
3. Maintaining good working conditions
4. Maintaining equipment in good repair and in clean condition.
5. Adequate provision of cleaning facilities and cleaning equipment.
6. Correct storage of foodstuffs at the right temperature.
7. Correct reheating of food
8. Quick cooling of foods prior to storage.
9. Protection of foods from vermin and insects.
10. Hygienic washing up procedure
11. Food-handlers must not only know belt also but carry out procedures for preventing food
2a). THREE CATEGORIES OF KITCHEN EQUIPMENTS AND TWO EXAMPLES OF EACH.
1. LARGE EQUIPMENT ”“Ranges, steamers, boiling pans, fish-fryers, sinks, tables, etc.
2. MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT- Peelers, mincers, mixers, refrigerators, dishwashers, etc.
3. UTENSILS AND SMALL EQUIPMENT-Pots, pans, whisks, bowls, spoons, etc.
2b). THE GENERAL POINTS WHICH MUST BE CONSIDERED IN SELECTING AND PURCHASING
1. Flexibility of use
2. Size of the kitchen to fit in the equipment.
3. Usage-(for what purposes to be used )
4. Design of the equipment
6. Ease of maintenance
7. Stack ability
8. Cost, funds available
9. Availability in the future
11. Rate of breakage i.e. China
2c). THE CLEANING OF COPPER EQUIPMENT
1. There must be two large sinks in which the pots may be completely immersed. The water in one
sink should be capable of being raised to boiling-point.
2. All dirty pans should be well soaked for a few minutes in boiling water to which a little soda has
3. They should be well scoured, using either a brush or wire wool or similar agent with a scouring
4. The pans are then rinsed in clean hot water and placed upside down to dry.
5. The copper surfaces, if tarnished, may be cleaned with a paste made from 1/3 silver sand, 1/3 flour
mixed with vinegar; the pans are then thoroughly rinsed and dried.
3). FRENCH CULINARY TERMS TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH
I. La broche= a roasting spit
Ii Le pain= bread
Iii Le brochette = a skewer
IV Le buffet= a sideboard of food, or a self-service table
V La casserole= a fire proof dish with lid
VI Le Boucher= butcher
Vii Le potager = soup cook
Viii Le poissonier = fish cook
Ix Le garde-manger= larder cook
X Le Boulanger= baker
Xi Le patisseur = pastry cook
Xii La viande = meat
4a). TYPES OF FOOD NUTRIENTS AND SOURCES
i. Carbohydrate (i) provide heat and energy: Obtained from sugar, starch and cellulose
Ii Protein: (i) Needed for growth: Obtained from animals (meat, game, poultry, fish,
egg e t c) and vegetables (Beans, peas nuts e t c )
(ii) Repair body tissues
(iii) Any spare protein is used for producing heat and energy
Iii Fats: (i) Protect vital organs of the body Obtained from
(ii) Provide heat and energy (a) animal (outer, land,
(iii) Provide vitamins cheese,cream bacom etc
(iv) Minerals: (i) Calcium is required for
(a) Building bone s and teeth
(b) Clotting of the blood
(c) The working of the muscles Obtained from Iron and
(ii) Phosphorus: is required for: Calcium e.g. milk and milk
(a) Building the bones and teeth products bones and green
(b) The control of the structure of the brain cells. Vegetables.
(iii) Iron: is required for:
(a) Building of the hemoglobin in blood
(b) Transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide
round the body.
(iv) Sodium: is required for body fluids
(v) Iodine: is required for the functioning of the thyroid
gland which regulates basal metabolism:
V VITAMINS: GENERAL FUNCTION
a) To help the growth of children
b) To protect against disease- obtained from meat, vegetables, fruits, milk, bread, cereals etc.
Vi WATER: is required for:
a) All body fluids
f) Regulating body temperature- obtained from beverages and food e. g. (water melon apples,
oranges, eggs e t c
4c. THREE COURSE MENU FOR AN 80 YEAR OLD GUEST
NOTE: When compiling the menu, the candidate should consider the following points.
1. The first course can be soup or horsdouvres (starter)
2. The main course or second course should be light meal and not heavy meal.
3. The third course should not be sugary but light sweet
4. Beverages/tea or coffee is not a course
5. The menu title i. e. Breakfast or Lunch or Dinner
6. The three-course meal is a set meal therefore a price must be fixed after compilation.
5a). ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES EQUIPMENT USED IN THE CATERING INDUSTRY
1. Solid top range e. g. Gas cooker
2. Electric cookers e. g. (a) Oven, (Gas cooker) (b) Boiling Plates e. g. Induction cookers
3. Refrigerator e. g. (a) Gas Refrigerator (b) Electric
4. Cold rooms, chill rooms, deep-freeze cabinets and compartments
5b). THE PROCESS OF CLEANING A POTATO-PEELER
1. Switch off the machine and remove the electric plug
2. Remove particles of potatoes with cloth, palette knife, or brush
3. The interior should be cleaned out daily and the abrasive plate removed to ensure that small
particles are not lodged below.
4. The peel trap should be emptied as frequently as required.
5. The waste outlet should be kept free from obstruction.
5c). ELECTRICAL TERM
i) Amperes-measure the rate of flow of a current and can be obtained by dividing the watts by
A = W/V WHERE A = AMPERES
W = WATTS
V = VOLTAGE
ii) Watts ”“ measure power- i.e. the rate at which any electrical appliance is using electric current
for a given pressure.
(Voltage) W= V X A
WHERE: W= WATTS
iii) Ohm’s law- measure the resistance of the wires to the passage of electricity and is comparable
with the friction offered by a water pipe to water flowing through it
This can be stated as follows:
iv) Volts- measure pressure of flow, comparing electricity to water, ”˜voltage ”˜corresponding to
pounds per square inch of a water supply. Before electricity can flow through a wire the
electrical pressure at one of the wire must be greater than at the other end.
Volts= ohms x amperes.
i. Meters- record the amount of electricity used in kilowatt hours in the kitchen
ii. Fuses- act as a safety device. They are used in the kitchen as follows:
(a) Lighting circuits
(b) Radial circuits
(c) Cooker or ring circuits
7a) METHODS OF COOKING
i) Boiling: is the cooking of prepared foods in a liquid at boiling point. This could be water, courtbouillon, or stock.
ii) Frying: this is cooking in fat either shallow or deep
a) Shallow frying- is cooking in shallow fat in a frying or sautÃ© on a griddle plate.
b) Deep frying;- this is cooking in a friture in deep clarified fat
iii) Stewing:- is gentle simmering in the smallest quantity of water, stock or sauce. The food is
always cut up, and both the liquid and the food are served together.
iv) Braising:-this is a combination of roasting and stewing in a pan with tight-fitting lid to prevent
evaporation so that the food retains its own juices together with the ingredients added for
flavoring e. g. bacon, ham, vegetable, herbs, etc
v) Roasting:- this can be in form of: (a) spit roasting or (b) oven roasting
a) Spit roasting;- is cooking by direct (radiated) heat with the aid of flat in form of basting (the
split must constantly revolve). It is applied to first-quality joints of meat and game and
b) Oven roasting;-is cooking in an oven with the aid of fat and is applied in first-class meat and
poultry and certain vegetables.
vi) Baking;-this is cooking by dry heat usually in an oven, in which the action of the dry heat is
modified by the presence of steam which arises from the food while cooking e.g. of foods are
bread, cakes, pastry and potatoes etc
vii) Simmering;-this is gently heat or slow cooking of food. It is good in preparation of stock or in
stewing of meat or tough joint of meat. It takes longer time to cook food of this nature but it is
viii) Poaching;- is cooking slowly in a minimum amount of liquid which should never be allowed to
boil, but which should reach a degree of heat as near as possible to boiling point. It is usually
applied to fish and fruit, but one exception is poached eggs.
ENGLISH BREAKFAST vs CONTINENTALBREAKFAST.
1. The same first course is served.
2. The same beverages, tea or coffee are served.
3. They are served at the same period, morning.
4. The double checking system is normally used for breakfast.
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