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NABTEB PHYSICS SYLLABUS
This syllabus has been designed from the NBTE Curriculum for the sole purpose of examination. It is designed to portray physics as a core science subject with emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge and skill associated with the concepts of Matter, Position, Time, Energy, Waves, Fields, Atomic and Nuclear Physics and Electronics.
AIMS
The aims of the syllabus are to:
 ensure that candidates acquire proper understanding of the basic underlying
principles and applications of Physics.
 develop scientific knowledge and skills which will be the spring board for further scientific studies and activities.
 inculcate in students the general scientific processes and phenomena towards the eradication of ignorance and superstition.
 develop relevant scientific attitudes such as precision, objectivity, initiative and inventiveness for the purpose of technological development.
SCHEME OF EXAMINATION
This subject will be made of two papers: Paper 1 and Paper 2 and will attract a total of 200 marks.
PAPER 1: will be the theory paper and will consist of two sections, A and B which will last for 2 3„4 hours
Section A: will comprise 50 multiplechoice objective questions drawn from all the areas of the syllabus. It will last for 11„4 hours for 50 marks
Section B: will consist of Five questions out of which candidates will be required to answer Four questions. It will last for 11„2 hours for 80 marks.
Recommended: Nabteb syllabus for all subjects
PAPER 2: will be a practical test which will last for 2 3„4 hours and will comprise three questions out of which candidates are to answer any two
questions for a total of 70 marks.
NOTE: Testofpractical paper will be conducted as an alternative paper to real practical for private candidates during the November/December series. It will last for 2 3„4 hours for a total of 70 marks and will comprise three questions out of which candidates are requested to answer any two questions.
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S/N  Topic/Objectives  Contents  Activities/Remarks 
PART 1 – MECHANICS  
1.  Concept of Matter
1.1 Explain the structure of matter: 3 states of matter and use the kinetic theory to explain the 3 states. 
1. Structure of matter 2. three states of Matter Solid, Liquid and Gas . 3. The particle nature of matter using Brownian motion experiment. 4. The Kinetic theory explanation of thethree states of matter. 5. Use Kinetic theory to explainevaporation and boiling. 6. Crystaline and amorphous substances metal and gas. 
Arrangement of atoms in crystalline structure is not required. 
2.  Fundamental Quantities and Units 1.1 State S.I. units of fundamental quantities and S.I. units of derived quantities.

Fundamental quantities and their S.I. units.
Derived quantities and their S.I. units. Measurement instruments for: i. Length ii. Mass iii. Time 
Examples such as Time, Length and Mass with units as s,m,kg. Also, volume m3, 2 acceleration ms example of derived quantity.
Using vernier caliper micrometer screwguage. The degree of accuracy of measuring instruments should be emphasized. Instruments such as measuring cylinder and overflowcan should be used. as 
3.  Position, Distance
& Displacement 3.1 State the differences between Distance and Displacement. 

Location of position of objects in plane using rectangular coordinate and representation of displacement in a rectangular coordinate system 
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should be treated.  
4.  Speed, Velocity & Acceleration in one dimension
4.1 Explain Uniformly Accelerated Motion 
1. Speed 2. Velocity 3. Acceleration 4. Uniform speed, Velocity andacceleration. 5. Equation of uniformly acceleratedmotion 6. Motion under gravity 7. Distance/displacement time graph. 8. Velocity Time graph 9. Calculations using the graphs above. 
The use of the equations: V=u+at 2 S=ut+ 1„2at
V2 = u2 + 2as 
5.  Motion of Bodies
1.1 Explain motion and its various types. speed in circular motion. Classification of Forces. 1.3 Classify forces into field and contact forces. Friction. 1.4 Explain Frictional Laws. Newtons Law of Motion Newton’s Laws of motion. 
1. The concept of motion 2. Types of motion with examples. 3. Simple ideas about circular motion andangular speed . 4. Types of Forces 5. Contact and field forces with examples. 6. Contact and field forces with examples. 7. Frictional force. 8. Frictional force and various types. 9. Factors affecting frictional force. 10. Advantages and disadvantages offrictional force. 11. a) Methods of reducing friction.b) Viscosity, frictional forces 12. Calculations on friction and viscosity.13. Newton’s first law of motion. i) Inertia. ii) Inertia mass and weight. iii) Momentum. v) Elastic and inelastic collision 14. i) Newton’s second law of motion. ii) Calculations involving the second law. motion (weightlessness, rocket etc) and calculations involving the laws. 
Different types of motion should be illustrated e.g. random, rectilinear, translational, rotational, circular, orbital, spin, oscillatory with practical examples.
Banking of roads should be emphasized. Note the differences between static and dynamic friction. Trainees should be made to roll spherical objects on a rough, smooth surfaces and report their experiences. Î¼s = F/R OR F =Î¼R Use F = Î¼R for horizontal plane and Î¼=tan Š– for incline plane with Š– as an angle of inclination. Use measuring 
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cylinder, ball bearing, fluid such as glycerin to illustrate viscosity.
Distinction between elastic and inelastic collisions Derivation of F = ma is necessary. Solve problems on momentum e.g. recoil of a gun, jet and rocket propulsion. 

6.  Scalar and Vector
Quantities 6.1. Explain the term scalar and Vector Quantities Addition of Vectors 6.2. Explain the parallelogram and triangle rules of addition of vectors Resolution Vectors 6.3. Resolve vectors into their rectangular components in two dimension. 
equilibrium of two or more vectors.
of two vectors.
addition.
components in two dimensions by drawing and by calculations. 
Explain using the force board.
Calculations involving components and resultant of vectors (at right angle and obtuse) 
7.  Projectile Motion 7.1 Explain projectile
motion and its 
1. Concept of projectile motion. 2. Definition of
i) range. 
Applications of projectile in sports, warfare, etc, should 
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applications.  ii) maximum height.
iii) time of flight

be mentioned.  
8.  Mass and Weight
8.1 Distinguish between Mass and Weight 
1. Definition of mass 2. Definition of weight 3. Distinction between mass and weight. 4. The relationship between mass andweight. 5. Calculation using the relationW = mg. 
Measure mass and weight using a chemical balance and spring balance. 
9.  Density and Relative Density 9.1 Explain Density
and Relative Density 
1. Definition of density. 2. Units of density. 3. Definition of relative density. 4. Calculations involving density andrelative density. 
i. Measurement of density.
ii. Measurement of relative density. 
10.  Fluid At Rest
1.1 Pressure in fluid at rest. Archimedes ple
Archimedes 
barometer and manometer
force pump, etc).
pressure in fluid P = hpg.
with depth.
completely immersed in a fluid e.g. water.

Set up a simple mercury barometer as in Torricellis Experiment. 
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principle. 1.4 Determine
relative Density using the principle. Floating 1.5 State the law of Floatation and explain its applications. 
solids and liquids using Archimedes
principle. principle. 
Determine R.d of solids and liquids using Archimedes  
11.  Surface Tension
its merits
applications and give the factors affecting tension. 


12.  Elastic Properties of Solids
Hooke’s Law. 

Verification of Hooke’s Law and determination of elastic constant.
Calculations involving energy stored and young modulus. 
13.  Equilibrium of forces
moments.
conditions of equilibrium of a 
in equilibrium under the action of coplanar forces.

Determination of unknown masses using the principle of moment. Construction of a beam of balance using the principle of moment. Verification of the principle of 
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rigid body.
Centre of Gravity
of a body.
centre of gravity for some regular and irregular shaped bodies. 
e.g. lamina, triangular, etc.
equilibrium.

moment.
Determination of centre of gravity of both regular and irregular shapes, e.g. using the plumbline method. 

14.  Simple Harmonic
Motion 14.1 Define and explain simple harmonic motion. frequency and amplitude of simple Harmonic Motion (SHM). 14.3 Explain speed and acceleration of SHM. of SHM, forced vibration and resonance. 
1. Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) 2. Period, frequency and amplitude of
simple harmonic motion. 
Illustrate SHM with spiral spring, simple pendulum, loaded testtube and bifilar suspension. Experimental determination of ”˜g’ using
i. Simple pendulum ii. Helical spring iii. Illustrate energy stored graphically. 
15.  Energy
15.1 Describe the various forms of energy. 15.2 Identify and classify the sources of energy. 15.3 State the principles of energy. 
1. Forms of energy. 2. Classification of energy into renewableand nonrenewable. 3. Principles of conservation of energy. 
Give examples of different forms of energy mechanical, heat, chemical, electrical and light. Examples of renewable energy sources are solar, wind, tidal, hydro and ocean waves. Example of non 
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renewable energy sources are petroleum, coal, nuclear and biomass.
Illustrate with simple pendulum, striking of match box. 

16.  Concept of Work
and Energy Power 16.1 Define work and energy.
kinetic energy and conservation of mechanical energy.

1. Work (Definition and formula). 2. Energy 3. Types of mechanical energy: potentialand kinetic energies 4. Work done in gravitational field. 5. Power. 6. Calculations involving work, energyand power. 
Illustrate with the lifting and falling of bodies. 
17.  Simple machines
17.1 Define simple machine and explain the mechanical advantage (MA), velocity ratio (VR) and efficiency e of 17.2 Explain the effects of friction on efficiency. 
1. Simple machine and types. 2. The force ratio Mechanical Advantage(MA) 3. Velocity Ratio (VR) of different simplemachines. 4. Efficiency of machines and itsrelationship with (MA) and (VR). 5. Simple calculations on machine. 6. Effects of Friction on efficiency. 
Examples of machines: Levers, pulleys, inclined plane, wedge, screw, wheel and axle, gears.
Determine the MA of different simple machines. 
PART II HEAT 
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18.  Concept of Temperature 18.1 Explain temperature
and its measurement. 
1. Definition of heat 2. Definition of temperature. 3. Thermometers and types 4. Properties of thermometric substance. 5. Construction and graduation of simpleliquid in glass thermometer. 6. Temperature scales and conversion ofthermometers. 7. Description of (i) Clinical (ii)minimum and maximum thermometers. 
Construction and use of a thermometer. 
19.  Effects of Heat
19.1 Describe the effects of heat.
expansion of water 
iii. Expansion iv. Change of resistance.
expansion, e.g. in building, bridges, bimetallic strips, thermostat, overhead cables (causing sagging) and in railway lines (causing bucking.
i. Linear expansivity, aÌ¨

Demonstration of expansion using ball and ring, bimetallic strip, bar and gauge etc.
Determination of linear expansivity of materials (rod) and volume expansivity of liquid. Discuss Hope’s experiment. 
20.  Heat Transfer
20.1 Explain modes conductivities of different solids and liquids. 

Comparison of thermal conductivities of metals.
Demonstration of water as a conductor of heat. 
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20.3 Compare radiation
and absorption of radiant heat by different surfaces. 
liquids.
radiant heat by different surfaces.
and radiation of heat in everyday life.
flask. 
Leslie’s Cube experiment.
Experimental illustration of a good and bad conductor of heat, e.g. copper and wood/plastic 

21.  Gas Laws
B21.1 State gas laws and explain the gas kinetic theory 
1. The Gas Laws: Boyle’s Law Charles’ s Law. – Pressure Law – General Gas Law

Perform the experiments to verify
(i) Boyle’s law (ii) Charles’s law 
22.  Heat Capacity
22.1 Explain heat capacity, specific heat capacity and their determination. 
1. Concept of heat capacity. 2. Specific heat capacity. 3. Calculation of quantity of heat. 4. Determination of specific heatcapacities of substances. 5. Land and sea breezes in relation tospecific heat capacity. 
Use of the method of mixtures and the electrical method to determine the specific heat capacities of solids and liquids. 
23.  Latent Heat
23.1 Explain the concept of latent of state of matter (melting, vaporisation and sublimation). 
effects of impurities and pressure.
evaporation.
and rain. 
Use the method of mixtures and electrical method to determine the specific latent heat of fusion of ice and of vaporization of steam.
Determine experimentally the melting point of a solid and the boiling point of a liquid. Demonstration of regulation, e.g. temperature, humidity, surface area, and draught over surface. 
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Demonstrate the cooling effect of evaporation using volatile liquid such as methylated spirit. Demonstrate vapour pressure experimentally. Determination of humidity of atmosphere using wet and dry bulb hydrometer.  
PART III WAVES, OPTICS AND SOUND  
24.  Production and Propagation of
Waves 24.1 Describe the concept of waves, propagation of waves. 24.2 Describe different types of waves. Properties of Waves 24.3 Describe and identify properties Solve problems involving the equation. 
1. Definition of waves 2. Generation and propagation of waves. 3. Graphical representation of waves. 4. Definition of amplitude, wavelength,frequency and period of wave. 5. Using the relationshipV = fÎ» to solve simpleproblems. 6. Definitions and examples of:i. Transverse. ii. Longitudinal, and iii. Stationary waves. 7. Stationary wave equation, Y=Asin (Ï‰t + 2Ï€) Î» 8. Properties of waves reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference. 9. Superposition of progressive waves (standing waves). 
Demonstrate energy propagation using ripple tank.
Note that frequency, f and period T are related by f=1/T. Explain all the symbols in the relationship. Y = Asin (Ï‰t + 2Ï€) Î» 
25.  Light Waves
25.1 Explain sources of demonstrate rectilinear 
”¢ formation of shadows and eclipses. ”¢ Pinhole camera. 
Demonstration of rectilinear propagation of light.
Construction and 
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propagation of light.
25.2Explain the reflection of light. Paraxial Beam Focus, Principal focus. and Application 
Solve problems using the above relations Uses driving mirror, dentist mirror, sharing mirror etc.
surfaces periscope, sextant, etc.
reflection
internal reflection.
Î¼ = Sin 1„2 (A + Dmin) Sin O A N 2 angle of deviation. minimum deviation. 16 Distinguish between 
working of pinhole camera to be treated. Verification of law of reflection.
Formation of images, characteristics of images and use of mirror formula: 1+1=1 uvf v m= u to solve numerical problems. (Derivation of mirror formulae is not required) Experimental determination of the focal length of concave mirror. Applications in search light, parabolic and driving mirrors, car headlamps, etc. Geometrical determination of image positions. Experimental determination of refractive index. 
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Refraction of Light
25.4 Explain the refraction of light at plane surfaces, rectangular glass prism (block) and 25.5 Explain the refraction of light on curved surfaces: convex, concave lenses. 
converging and diverging lenses.
17. Definition of terms e.g. * Principal axis * Focal length
1 + 1 = 1 and m=v uvfu
i) Simple microscope
astigmatism and presbyopia.
secondary colours.
spectrum. 
Examples of Applications include: image fisheyeview periscope, optical fibres and binoculars
Determination of focal length of the lens (approximate method etc). 
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Optical Instruments
25.6 Describe optical instruments I.E. (applications of refraction). Dispersal of Light 25.7 Explain the dispersion of white production of colours. 
Construction of simple microscope. Draw ray diagram for formation of images by a compound microscope.
Demonstrate splitting of white light into different colours by a prism. 

26.  Electromagnetic
Waves 26.1 Explain the principles of electromagnetic waves and identify its properties. 
1. Definition of electromagnetic waves. 2. Distinction between electromagnetic
waves and mechanical waves. electromagnetic spectrum. 
Draw electromagnetic spectrum. 
27.  Sound Waves
27.1 Explain the production of sound waves and description of their properties. 27.2 Explain the production of echoes and applications of echo sounding. 27.3 Explain musical instruments and its operations. 27.4 Explain forced 
Factors affection velocity of sound in
i. ii. Determination of sea depth using echo. 7. Distinction between musical note and noise. 
Demonstrate that a material medium is required to transmit sound. Examples of factors affecting velocity of sound are: temperature, pressure, wind, etc. Measurement of velocity of sound by echo method.
Use sonometer to demonstrate the dependence of frequency (f) on 
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vibrations.
27.5 Explain vibrations of air open pipes. 
loudness, quality, etc.
determination of the velocity of sound in air.
and wind instrument. 
length (L) tension (T) and linear density (m) of string i.e.
F=1 L /T Use the above formula involving simple problems. Mention string instruments such as guitar, piano, harp, violin, etc. Use resonance tube and sonometer to illustrate forced vibrations. Fo = v 4L, hence, to = V 2Î» 
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harmonics present in an open pipe are fo, 2fo, 3fo, 4fo… End correction is necessary and use the relationship
V = f Î» in silving numerical problems. Mention examples organ, flute, trumpet, horn, clarinet, saxophone, etc. 

PART IV FIELDS  
28.  Concept of Fields
28.1 Explain gravitational, electric and magnetic fields and properties. 

Use compass needle and iron fillings to show magnetic field lines. 
29.  Gravitational field
29.1 Explain the concept of gravitational field, gravitational field, gravitational potential and escape velocity. 
rocket and, gravitational intensity and potential. 

30.  Electric Field
30.1 Explain static electricity. Describe various ways of producing charges and the force between two 
1. Concept of charge. 2. Definition of static electricity. 3. Conductors and insulators. 4. Production of charges friction andinduction. 5. The gold leaf electroscope and its use. 6. Distribution of charges on a conductor. 7. Electric lines of force and electric force 
Ways of producing negative and positive charges such as contact, friction and induction should be treated. Application of the 
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charges.
30.2 Explain the concept of electric field. 30.3 Explain the concept of capacitance, arrangement of capacitors and their applications. Capacitor and capacitance 30.3 Explain the concept of capacitance, arrangement of capacitors and their applications. 
between point charges.
F=Kq1q2 R2 F = qE
gradient.
energy.
capacitors

Gold Lead.
Application of lighting conductor. Note: Permitivity of a material medium between point charges. Calculation involving electric field, electric field intensity and electric potential is necessary. Note Farad (F) as unit of capacitance. Use C = ÎµA d to compute capacitance where Îµ is permitivity of medium. Derivation of formula for energy stored in charged capacitor, Example: 2 
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formulae for capacitance is not required).  
Current Electricity
30.4 Current electricity. Explain the production of electric current from cells. 30.5 Explain potential difference and electric current using an electric circuit. Electric Energy and Power energy and power. 
18. Simple cells 19. Defects of primary cell and itsremedies. 20. Leclanche wet and dry cells Danieletc. 21. Secondary cell: (Leadacidaccumulator). 22. Structure of a secondary cell. 23. Maintenance of accumulator. 24. Simple electric circuit. 25. Current, emf and potential difference. 26. Ohm’s law and resistance. 27. Ohmic and nonOhmic conductors. 28. Series and parallel arrangement of cellsand resistors. 29. Determination of effective emf and effective resistance for series and parallel arrangement. cells and batteries. power. its applications. of electrical energy using the relation mcÓ¨ = 1vt or = 12Rt R or 12Rt or V2t R = electrical energy 34. Galvanometer voltmeter using multiplier. 
Give example of secondary cells as leadaicd accumulator, alkaline cadmium cell.
Draw a well labeled diagram of lead acidaccmulator. Rechargeability. Noe the unot of potential difference as volt (V), ampere (A) for current and Ohm (Î©) for resistance. Experimental verification of Ohm’s Law. Solve problems r=EV I Ohmic and non Ohmic conductors and factors affecting Ohmic conductors. Examples of applications are: Electric motor, ring boiler, electric kettle. Explain kilowatt hour in commercial electricity as the Board of trade unit. 
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30.7 Describe the operations of
shunt 
Calculation involving the conversion of galvanometer to ammeter and to voltmeter is necessary.  
30.8 Define resistivity and conductivity
of factors affecting electrical nce of a material. 30.9 Explain the measurement of electric current, potential difference, resistance emf and internal resistance of a cell. 
A
i. Ammeter. 
Note : S.I. unit of resistivity as (Î©m) and that of conductivity as ((Î©m)1.
Also the relationship between resistivity (Ï) and conductivity (Ïƒ) as i = Ïƒ e resistivity, length, crosssectional area (radius), temperature. Perform experiment using potentiometer determine and compare emf, p.d of cells. By using metre bridge, determine the unknown resistance in a circuit. 

30.  Electrical Conduction Through Liquids30.1 Explain 
1. Definition of electrolysis 2. Electrolytes and nonelectrolysis. 3. Charge carriers in electrolytes: anionsand cations. 4. Conduction of charge carriers through 
Give examples of electrolytes and nonelectrolytes. 
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electrolysis and its
applications. 
electrolyte.
applications of electrolysis. 
Mention examples of applications as electroplating, extraction of metals e.g. aluminum and purification of metals.  
31.  Electrical Condition Through Gasses 31.1 Explain discharge
through gasses, hot emissions and their applications. 
1. Discharge through gasses. 2. Hot cathode emission. 3. Applications of discharge throughgasses and hot cathode emission. 
Example in neon signs, fluorescent tubes, etc. 
32.  Magnetism
32.1 Explain the properties of magnets and concepts of magnetization. 
1. Magnetic materials. 2. Processes of magnetization anddemagnetization. 3. Distinction between permanent andtemporary magnets. 4. The earth’s magnetism. 5. Angles of dip and declination. 6. Description and application of themarine compass. 7. Magnetic field due to bar magnet. 8. Interaction of fields of:i. Two bar magnets. ii. Bar magnets and earth’s field. and a solenoid. carrying conductor e.g. electric motor, movingcoil galvanometer. carrying current. electromagnets. electric bell, telephone earpiece. 
List examples of magnetic materials: soft iron, nickel, cobalt, etc.
Explain magnetic flux and density, magnetic field around a permanent magnet, a current carrying conductor. Plot lines of force to locate neutral points using compass needle, iron fillings. Note units of magnetic flux and magnetic flux density as weber (Wb) and tesla (T) respectively. Compare the use of iron and steel as magnetic materials. Ilustrate with stroking and electrical method, also heating for de 
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particle. 16. Problems involving the motion ofcharged particle in a magnetic field. 
magnetization only. Illustrate the direction of the movement of the conductor using Fleming’s lefthand rule.
Solve problem using F = BIL sinÎ¸ Use right grip rule or corkscrew rule to illustrate the direction of magnetic field. 

33.  Electromagnetic Induction 33.1 Explain the conceptof electro magneticinduction. 33.2 Explainelectromagnetic induction and its applications.33.3 Explain the concept of inductance. 33.4 Explain Eddy current, power transmission and distribution. 
1. Concept of electromagnetic induction. 2. Electromagnetic induction: Faraday’s
Law, Lenz’s Law. and Lenz’s law. a magnetic field. t. 6. TV and transformer.
applications of Eddy current.
tension transmission lines.

Determination of direction of current using Fleming’s right rule.
The principle underlying the operations of direct and alternating currents should be treated. Note also that in equation E = Eo sin wt. Where E = induced emf, Eo = peak emf, w = angular velocity and t = time. Note unit of inductance as Henry (H). Use E = 1„2 LI2 to solve simple problems 
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(Note derivation of formula is not necessary). Method of reducing Eddy current and the application of Eddy current losses in induction furnace, speedometer etc. Example of reduction of power losses process is to transmit power at low current and high volage. Fuses, electrical installations: Line (L), Neutral (N) and Earth (E) should be discussed. 

34.  Simple A.C. Circuit
34.1 Explain the graphical representation of variation of e.m.f. and current in an a.c. circuit, peak and r.m.s values of 34.2 Analyse series circuit containing resistance, inductance and capacitance abd explain reactance, impedance, vector diagrams, resonance and power in an a.c. 
current in the circuit’s elements; resistors, inductor and capacitor.
capacitance.

Treat the graph equation I = Io sin Ï‰t for current and E = Eo sin Ï‰t for e.m.f.
Lo = ˆš2 1rms Note the relationship between the peak and r.m.s. values. Eo = ˆš2 Erms Use To solve simple problems. (Deirvation of the formulae is not required). Differentiate between reactance and resistance. 
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Recommended: Nabteb syllabus for all subjects
circuit.  Application of resonance on TV and radio should be discussed.  
PART V ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS  
1.  Structure of Atom
35.1 Describe the models of the atom and the limitation of each. 35.2 Explain energy quantization. 35.3 Explain photoelectric effect. 35.4 Explain thermionic emission and X rays: production, characteristics and applications. 
”¢ Rutherford.
(Bohr.)
discharge lamps.
hot bodies.
threshold frequency.
equation.
application.
Xrays.
precautions. 
hv = Eo + KEmax Discuss applications in TV, camera etc
Illustrate the production of Xray using a well labelled diagram of Xray tube. 
36.  Structure of the  1. Composition of the nucleus of an atom:  Deine the term: 
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nucleus
36.1 Explain the composition of the nucleus. 36.2 Explain radioactivity. Identify the types and give examples of radioactive elements. emissions, describe their properties, uses and ways of detecting them. 36.4 Explain radioactive decay, half life, transformation of elements by radioactivity and the applications of radioactivity. 
”¢ Protons.
”¢ Neutrons.
emissions.
constant.
radioactivity.

nucleon number (A), proton number Z, neutron number (N) and state the equation A= Z+N. Treat also nuclides and their notations.
Give examples as Uranium, Thorium, etc. Î» = 0.693 Î» problems. 

36.5 Explain nuclear reactions
fusion and fission. 
12. Types of nuclear reactions: ”¢ Fusion, and ”¢ Fission
15. Radiation hazards and safety precautions. 16. Peaceful uses of nuclear reactions. 
Give examples of aplications as in agriculture, industry, medicine, archeology, etc.  
PART VI BASIC ELECTRONICS  
Basic Concepts in Electronics  1. Distinction between conductors, semi conductors and insulators using 
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47.1 Distinguish between
conductors, semi conductors and insulators in terms of conduction. 37.2 Explain doping of semiconductors p and n type semi conductors, majority and minority carriers. 37.3Explain I V characteristics of p n junction diode and rectification. transistors and single stage amplifier. 
conductivity and modes of conduction.
energy bands and their effects on conductivity of material.
semiconductors.
p n junction diode.
using capacitors.
pnp and npn transistors.

Draw and label the circuit for a single stage amplifier and use it to explain its operations.
You are only required to mention integrated circuits. 
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