# NABTEB Physics Syllabus 2021 And Hot Topics (PDF)

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## NABTEB PHYSICS SYLLABUS 2021

This syllabus has been designed from the NBTE Curriculum for the sole purpose of examination. It is designed to portray physics as a core science subject with emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge and skill associated with the concepts of Matter, Position, Time, Energy, Waves, Fields, Atomic and Nuclear Physics and Electronics.

**AIMS**

The aims of the syllabus are to:

- ensure that candidates acquire proper understanding of the basic underlying

principles and applications of Physics.

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- develop scientific knowledge and skills which will be the spring board for further scientific studies and activities.
- inculcate in students the general scientific processes and phenomena towards the eradication of ignorance and superstition.
- develop relevant scientific attitudes such as precision, objectivity, initiative and inventiveness for the purpose of technological development.

**SCHEME OF EXAMINATION**

This subject will be made of two papers: Paper 1 and Paper 2 and will attract a total of 200 marks.

PAPER 1: will be the theory paper and will consist of two sections, A and B which will last for 2 3„4 hours

Section A: will comprise 50 multiple-choice objective questions drawn from all the areas of the syllabus. It will last for 11„4 hours for 50 marks

Section B: will consist of Five questions out of which candidates will be required to answer Four questions. It will last for 11„2 hours for 80 marks.

**Recommended:** Nabteb syllabus for all subjects

PAPER 2: will be a practical test which will last for 2 3„4 hours and will comprise three questions out of which candidates are to answer any two

questions for a total of 70 marks.

NOTE: Test-of-practical paper will be conducted as an alternative paper to real practical for private candidates during the November/December series. It will last for 2 3„4 hours for a total of 70 marks and will comprise three questions out of which candidates are requested to answer any two questions.

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S/N | Topic/Objectives | Contents | Activities/Remarks |

PART 1 – MECHANICS | |||

1. | Concept of Matter 1.1 Explain the structure of matter: 3 states of matter and use the kinetic theory to explain the 3 states. | 1. Structure of matter 2. three states of Matter Solid, Liquid and Gas . 3. The particle nature of matter using Brownian motion experiment. 4. The Kinetic theory explanation of thethree states of matter. 5. Use Kinetic theory to explainevaporation and boiling. 6. Crystaline and amorphous substances metal and gas. | Arrangement of atoms in crystalline structure is not required. |

2. | Fundamental Quantities and Units 1.1 State S.I. units of fundamental quantities and S.I. units of derived quantities. - 1.2 Measurement of Length, Mass and Time
- 1.3 Measurement of Area and Volume of objects.
| Fundamental quantities and their S.I. units. Derived quantities and their S.I. units. Measurement instruments for: i. Length ii. Mass iii. Time | Examples such as Time, Length and Mass with units as s,m,kg. Also, volume m3, -2 acceleration ms example of derived quantity. Using vernier caliper micrometer screw-guage. The degree of accuracy of measuring instruments should be emphasized. Instruments such as measuring cylinder and overflow-can should be used. as |

3. | Position, Distance & Displacement 3.1 State the differences between Distance and Displacement. | - Definition of position Distance and Displacement.
- Distinction between Distance and Displacement.
| Location of position of objects in plane using rectangular coordinate and representation of displacement in a rectangular coordinate system |

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should be treated. | |||

4. | Speed, Velocity & Acceleration in one dimension 4.1 Explain Uniformly Accelerated Motion | 1. Speed 2. Velocity 3. Acceleration 4. Uniform speed, Velocity andacceleration. 5. Equation of uniformly acceleratedmotion 6. Motion under gravity 7. Distance/displacement time graph. 8. Velocity Time graph 9. Calculations using the graphs above. | The use of the equations: V=u+at 2 S=ut+ 1„2at V2 = u2 + 2as |

5. | Motion of Bodies 1.1 Explain motion and its various types. speed in circular motion. Classification of Forces. 1.3 Classify forces into field and contact forces. Friction. 1.4 Explain Frictional Laws. Newtons Law of Motion Newton’s Laws of motion. | 1. The concept of motion 2. Types of motion with examples. 3. Simple ideas about circular motion andangular speed . 4. Types of Forces 5. Contact and field forces with examples. 6. Contact and field forces with examples. 7. Frictional force. 8. Frictional force and various types. 9. Factors affecting frictional force. 10. Advantages and disadvantages offrictional force. 11. a) Methods of reducing friction.b) Viscosity, frictional forces 12. Calculations on friction and viscosity.13. Newton’s first law of motion. i) Inertia. ii) Inertia mass and weight. iii) Momentum. v) Elastic and inelastic collision 14. i) Newton’s second law of motion. ii) Calculations involving the second law. motion (weightlessness, rocket etc) and calculations involving the laws. | Different types of motion should be illustrated e.g. random, rectilinear, translational, rotational, circular, orbital, spin, oscillatory with practical examples. Banking of roads should be emphasized. Note the differences between static and dynamic friction. Trainees should be made to roll spherical objects on a rough, smooth surfaces and report their experiences. Î¼s = F/R OR F =Î¼R Use F = Î¼R for horizontal plane and Î¼=tan Š– for incline plane with Š– as an angle of inclination. Use measuring |

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cylinder, ball bearing, fluid such as glycerin to illustrate viscosity. Distinction between elastic and inelastic collisions Derivation of F = ma is necessary. Solve problems on momentum e.g. recoil of a gun, jet and rocket propulsion. | |||

6. | Scalar and Vector Quantities 6.1. Explain the term scalar and Vector Quantities Addition of Vectors 6.2. Explain the parallelogram and triangle rules of addition of vectors Resolution Vectors 6.3. Resolve vectors into their rectangular components in two dimension. | - Scalar and vector quantities with examples.
- representation of vectors graphically in two dimensions.
- Resultant of two or more vectors
- Determination of the resultant
equilibrium of two or more vectors. - The parallelogram rule of the addition
of two vectors. - The use of triangle rule for vector
addition. - Component of vectors,
- Resolution of vectors into rectangular
components in two dimensions by drawing and by calculations. | Explain using the force board. Calculations involving components and resultant of vectors (at right angle and obtuse) |

7. | Projectile Motion 7.1 Explain projectile motion and its | 1. Concept of projectile motion. 2. Definition of i) range. | Applications of projectile in sports, warfare, etc, should |

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applications. | ii) maximum height. iii) time of flight - Calculations involving projectile
- Applications of projectile.
| be mentioned. | |

8. | Mass and Weight 8.1 Distinguish between Mass and Weight | 1. Definition of mass 2. Definition of weight 3. Distinction between mass and weight. 4. The relationship between mass andweight. 5. Calculation using the relationW = mg. | Measure mass and weight using a chemical balance and spring balance. |

9. | Density and Relative Density 9.1 Explain Density and Relative Density | 1. Definition of density. 2. Units of density. 3. Definition of relative density. 4. Calculations involving density andrelative density. | i. Measurement of density. ii. Measurement of relative density. |

10. | Fluid At Rest 1.1 Pressure in fluid at rest. Archimedes ple - 1.2 State Archimedes principle.
- 1.3 Solve problems using
Archimedes | - Definition of pressure, S.I. unit of pressure.
- The relationship between Pressure P, Force F, and Area A as P = F/A.
- Calculations involving pressure using P = F/A.
- Atmospheric pressure
- Atmospheric pressure in bars.
- Construction and operation of mercury
barometer and manometer - Operation of aneroid barometer.
- Operation of siphon, pump (lift pump,
force pump, etc). - Hydraulic press.
- Derivation of an expression for the
pressure in fluid P = hpg. - Pascal’s principle
- Explanation of the variation of pressure
with depth. - Pascal’s principle.
- Calculations using P = hpg.
- Archimedes principle.
- Forces acting on a body partially or
completely immersed in a fluid e.g. water. - Problems using Archimedes principle.
- Determination of relative density of
| Set up a simple mercury barometer as in Torricellis Experiment. |

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principle. 1.4 Determine relative Density using the principle. Floating 1.5 State the law of Floatation and explain its applications. | solids and liquids using Archimedes principle. principle. | Determine R.d of solids and liquids using Archimedes | |

11. | Surface Tension- 1.1 Define surface tension and state
its merits - 1.2 Discuss its
applications and give the factors affecting tension. | - Definition of surface tension and derivation of its units.
- Forces of adhesion and cohesion and relate this to capillarity and wetting of surfaces. Molecular explanation of surface tension.
- Factors that affect surface tension temperature impurities, etc.
- Practical application e.g. capillarity.
| |

12. | Elastic Properties of Solids- 1.1 State Hook’s Law
- 1.2 Calculate problems involving
Hooke’s Law. | - Statement of Hooke’s Law. Problems involving Hooke’s Law.
- Calculation of work done in stretching or in an elastic body.
- Definition of tensile stress and tensile strain.
- Young modulus and its significance
| Verification of Hooke’s Law and determination of elastic constant. Calculations involving energy stored and young modulus. |

13. | Equilibrium of forces- 1.1 Define moment of force, couple .
- 1.2 Solve problems involving
moments. - 1.3 State the
conditions of equilibrium of a | - Equilibrium of three coplanar forces acting at a point.
- Definition of moment of a force.
- Definition of couple.
- Conditions under which a rigid body is
in equilibrium under the action of coplanar forces. - Problems involving moments
- Definition of centre of gravity.
- Centre of gravity of regular shapes,
| Determination of unknown masses using the principle of moment. Construction of a beam of balance using the principle of moment. Verification of the principle of |

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rigid body. Centre of Gravity - 1.4 Explain the centre of gravity
of a body. - 1.5 Determine the
centre of gravity for some regular and irregular shaped bodies. | e.g. lamina, triangular, etc.- Stable, unstable and neutral
equilibrium. - Factors affecting stability of a body.
| moment. Determination of centre of gravity of both regular and irregular shapes, e.g. using the plumbline method. | |

14. | Simple Harmonic Motion 14.1 Define and explain simple harmonic motion. frequency and amplitude of simple Harmonic Motion (SHM). 14.3 Explain speed and acceleration of SHM. of SHM, forced vibration and resonance. | 1. Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) 2. Period, frequency and amplitude of simple harmonic motion. | Illustrate SHM with spiral spring, simple pendulum, loaded test-tube and bifilar suspension. Experimental determination of ”˜g’ using i. Simple pendulum ii. Helical spring iii. Illustrate energy stored graphically. |

15. | Energy 15.1 Describe the various forms of energy. 15.2 Identify and classify the sources of energy. 15.3 State the principles of energy. | 1. Forms of energy. 2. Classification of energy into renewableand non-renewable. 3. Principles of conservation of energy. | Give examples of different forms of energy mechanical, heat, chemical, electrical and light. Examples of renewable energy sources are solar, wind, tidal, hydro and ocean waves. Example of non |

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renewable energy sources are petroleum, coal, nuclear and biomass. Illustrate with simple pendulum, striking of match box. | |||

16. | Concept of Work and Energy Power 16.1 Define work and energy. - 16.2 Explain potential energy and
kinetic energy and conservation of mechanical energy. - 16.3 Explain power.
| 1. Work (Definition and formula). 2. Energy 3. Types of mechanical energy: potentialand kinetic energies 4. Work done in gravitational field. 5. Power. 6. Calculations involving work, energyand power. | Illustrate with the lifting and falling of bodies. |

17. | Simple machines 17.1 Define simple machine and explain the mechanical advantage (MA), velocity ratio (VR) and efficiency e of 17.2 Explain the effects of friction on efficiency. | 1. Simple machine and types. 2. The force ratio Mechanical Advantage(MA) 3. Velocity Ratio (VR) of different simplemachines. 4. Efficiency of machines and itsrelationship with (MA) and (VR). 5. Simple calculations on machine. 6. Effects of Friction on efficiency. | Examples of machines: Levers, pulleys, inclined plane, wedge, screw, wheel and axle, gears. Determine the MA of different simple machines. |

PART II HEAT |

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18. | Concept of Temperature 18.1 Explain temperature and its measurement. | 1. Definition of heat 2. Definition of temperature. 3. Thermometers and types 4. Properties of thermometric substance. 5. Construction and graduation of simpleliquid in glass thermometer. 6. Temperature scales and conversion ofthermometers. 7. Description of (i) Clinical (ii)minimum and maximum thermometers. | Construction and use of a thermometer. |

19. | Effects of Heat 19.1 Describe the effects of heat. - 19.2 Explain thermal expansion.
- 19.3 Describe anomalous
expansion of water | - Explanation of effect of heat in the following, using kinetic theory.
i. Rise in temperature ii. Change of state
iii. Expansion iv. Change of resistance. - Consequences and applications of
expansion, e.g. in building, bridges, bimetallic strips, thermostat, overhead cables (causing sagging) and in railway lines (causing bucking. - Thermal expansion in both solids and liquid.
i. Linear expansivity, aÌ¨ - Relationship between aÌ¨, ÃŸ and aÌ¨
- Anomalous expansion of water and its importance.
- Numerical problems on thermal expansion.
| Demonstration of expansion using ball and ring, bimetallic strip, bar and gauge etc. Determination of linear expansivity of materials (rod) and volume expansivity of liquid. Discuss Hope’s experiment. |

20. | Heat Transfer 20.1 Explain modes conductivities of different solids and liquids. | - Heat transfer.
”¢ Conduction. ”¢ Convection. ”¢ Radiation. - Explain conduction and convection using kinetic theory.
- Examples of good and bad conductors of heat.
- Comparing thermal conductivities of different metal rods, and various
| Comparison of thermal conductivities of metals. Demonstration of water as a conductor of heat. |

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20.3 Compare radiation and absorption of radiant heat by different surfaces. | liquids.- Explanation of land and sea breezes.
- Absorption and radiation of heat,
radiant heat by different surfaces. - Applications of conduction, convection
and radiation of heat in everyday life. - Principle and operation of the vaccum
flask. | Leslie’s Cube experiment. Experimental illustration of a good and bad conductor of heat, e.g. copper and wood/plastic | |

21. | Gas Laws B21.1 State gas laws and explain the gas kinetic theory | 1. The Gas Laws: Boyle’s Law- Charles’ s Law. – Pressure Law – General Gas Law - Explanation of the gas laws using kinetic theory.
- Calculations of gas law
| Perform the experiments to verify (i) Boyle’s law (ii) Charles’s law |

22. | Heat Capacity 22.1 Explain heat capacity, specific heat capacity and their determination. | 1. Concept of heat capacity. 2. Specific heat capacity. 3. Calculation of quantity of heat. 4. Determination of specific heatcapacities of substances. 5. Land and sea breezes in relation tospecific heat capacity. | Use of the method of mixtures and the electrical method to determine the specific heat capacities of solids and liquids. |

23. | Latent Heat 23.1 Explain the concept of latent of state of matter (melting, vaporisation and sublimation). | - Definition of latent heat and specific latent heat of fusion and vaporization
- Calculation involving them.
- Boiling and melting points and the
effects of impurities and pressure. - Working principles of pressure cooker.
- Working principle of refrigerator.
- Boiling and evaporation.
- Factors affecting boiling and
evaporation. - Effects of evaporation.
- Vapour and vapour pressure.
- Saturated vapour pressure and boiling.
- Dew point and relative humidity.
- Humidity, formation of dew, mist, fog
and rain. | Use the method of mixtures and electrical method to determine the specific latent heat of fusion of ice and of vaporization of steam. Determine experimentally the melting point of a solid and the boiling point of a liquid. Demonstration of regulation, e.g. temperature, humidity, surface area, and draught over surface. |

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Demonstrate the cooling effect of evaporation using volatile liquid such as methylated spirit. Demonstrate vapour pressure experimentally. Determination of humidity of atmosphere using wet and dry bulb hydrometer. | |||

PART III WAVES, OPTICS AND SOUND | |||

24. | Production and Propagation of Waves 24.1 Describe the concept of waves, propagation of waves. 24.2 Describe different types of waves. Properties of Waves 24.3 Describe and identify properties Solve problems involving the equation. | 1. Definition of waves 2. Generation and propagation of waves. 3. Graphical representation of waves. 4. Definition of amplitude, wavelength,frequency and period of wave. 5. Using the relationshipV = fÎ» to solve simpleproblems. 6. Definitions and examples of:i. Transverse. ii. Longitudinal, and iii. Stationary waves. 7. Stationary wave equation, Y=Asin (Ï‰t + 2Ï€) Î» 8. Properties of waves reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference. 9. Superposition of progressive waves (standing waves). | Demonstrate energy propagation using ripple tank. Note that frequency, f and period T are related by f=1/T. Explain all the symbols in the relationship. Y = Asin (Ï‰t + 2Ï€) Î» |

25. | Light Waves 25.1 Explain sources of demonstrate rectilinear | - Sources of light Luminous and non- luminous objects.
- Rays and beams
- Rectilinear propagation of light.
”¢ formation of shadows and eclipses. ”¢ Pin-hole camera. | Demonstration of rectilinear propagation of light. Construction and |

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propagation of light. 25.2Explain the reflection of light. Paraxial Beam Focus, Principal focus. and Application | - Reflection of light at plain surface, e.g. plain mirror.
- Laws of reflection, regular and irregular reflection.
- Images in plain mirror inclined mirror
- Effects of rotation of mirrors on the reflected beam.
- Application of reflection from plain surfaces periscope, sextant, etc Virtual and real image.
- Types – concave and conex etc. Definition of terminologies principal axis (P.A) Principal focus etc. Formation of images
Sign convection & formula mirror formula 1+1=1 uvf magnification = v = Hi u Ho
Solve problems using the above relations Uses driving mirror, dentist mirror, sharing mirror etc. - Concept of refraction.
- Application of reflection from plain
surfaces periscope, sextant, etc. - Laws of refraction; Snell’s law.
- Definition of refractive index.
- Real and apparent depths.
- Critical angle and total internal
reflection - Applications of refraction and total
internal reflection. - Refraction through triangular prism.
- Calculation of refractive index.
Î¼ = Sin 1„2 (A + Dmin) Sin O A N 2 angle of deviation. minimum deviation. 16 Distinguish between | working of pin-hole camera to be treated. Verification of law of reflection. Formation of images, characteristics of images and use of mirror formula: 1+1=1 uvf v m= u to solve numerical problems. (Derivation of mirror formulae is not required) Experimental determination of the focal length of concave mirror. Applications in search light, parabolic and driving mirrors, car headlamps, etc. Geometrical determination of image positions. Experimental determination of refractive index. |

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Refraction of Light 25.4 Explain the refraction of light at plane surfaces, rectangular glass prism (block) and 25.5 Explain the refraction of light on curved surfaces: convex, concave lenses. | converging and diverging lenses. 17. Definition of terms e.g. * Principal axis * Focal length - Use of ray diagrams to illustrate formation of images by lenses.
1 + 1 = 1 and m=v uvfu - Use the above relation to solve problems
i) Simple microscope - Operational principle of optical projector.
- Human eye and camera.
- Eye defects: myopia, hypermyopia,
astigmatism and presbyopia. - Correction of eye defects.
- Concept of dispersion.
- Dispersion and deviation.
- Description of rainbow.
- Pure and impure spectrum.
- Production of pure spectrum.
- Effects of coloured light.
- Mixing of colour and mixing pigments.
- Distinction between primary and
secondary colours. - Components of electromagnetic
spectrum. | Examples of Applications include: image fish-eye-view periscope, optical fibres and binoculars Determination of focal length of the lens (approximate method etc). |

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Optical Instruments 25.6 Describe optical instruments I.E. (applications of refraction). Dispersal of Light 25.7 Explain the dispersion of white production of colours. | Construction of simple microscope. Draw ray diagram for formation of images by a compound microscope. Demonstrate splitting of white light into different colours by a prism. | ||

26. | Electromagnetic Waves 26.1 Explain the principles of electromagnetic waves and identify its properties. | 1. Definition of electromagnetic waves. 2. Distinction between electromagnetic waves and mechanical waves. electromagnetic spectrum. | Draw electromagnetic spectrum. |

27. | Sound Waves 27.1 Explain the production of sound waves and description of their properties. 27.2 Explain the production of echoes and applications of echo sounding. 27.3 Explain musical instruments and its operations. 27.4 Explain forced | - Sources of sound.
- Transmission of sound.
- Speed of sound in solids, liquids, and
- gasses.
Factors affection velocity of sound in - air.
- Production of echoes. Application of echoes:
i. ii. Determination of sea depth using echo. 7. Distinction between musical note and noise. | Demonstrate that a material medium is required to transmit sound. Examples of factors affecting velocity of sound are: temperature, pressure, wind, etc. Measurement of velocity of sound by echo method. Use sonometer to demonstrate the dependence of frequency (f) on |

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vibrations. 27.5 Explain vibrations of air open pipes. | loudness, quality, etc.- Vibrations in strings.
- Explanation of the phenomena of beats.
- Concepts of forced vibration.
- Resonance.
- Harmonics and overtones.
- Musical tones.
- Air column
- Vibration in closed pipes.
- Vibration in open pipes.
- Resonance tube experiment for
determination of the velocity of sound in air. - Applications of vibration of air in pipes
and wind instrument. | length (L) tension (T) and linear density (m) of string i.e. F=1 L /T Use the above formula involving simple problems. Mention string instruments such as guitar, piano, harp, violin, etc. Use resonance tube and sonometer to illustrate forced vibrations. Fo = v 4L, hence, to = V 2Î» |

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harmonics present in an open pipe are fo, 2fo, 3fo, 4fo… End correction is necessary and use the relationship V = f Î» in silving numerical problems. Mention examples organ, flute, trumpet, horn, clarinet, saxophone, etc. | |||

PART IV FIELDS | |||

28. | Concept of Fields 28.1 Explain gravitational, electric and magnetic fields and properties. | - Definition of fields:
i. Gravitational field. ii. Electric field. iii. Magnetic field. - Properties of force field.
| Use compass needle and iron fillings to show magnetic field lines. |

29. | Gravitational field 29.1 Explain the concept of gravitational field, gravitational field, gravitational potential and escape velocity. | - Gravitational force between two masses e.g. proton, electronics and planets Newton’s Law of Gravitation.
- Gravitational field intensity acceleration due to gravity.
- Relationship between universal gravitational constant (G) ad acceleration due to gravity (g).
- Effect of latitude, altitude and the rotation of the earth on acceleration due to gravity.
- Gravitational potential.
- Escape velocity.
- Calculation of escape velocity of a
rocket and, gravitational intensity and potential. | |

30. | Electric Field 30.1 Explain static electricity. Describe various ways of producing charges and the force between two | 1. Concept of charge. 2. Definition of static electricity. 3. Conductors and insulators. 4. Production of charges friction andinduction. 5. The gold leaf electroscope and its use. 6. Distribution of charges on a conductor. 7. Electric lines of force and electric force | Ways of producing negative and positive charges such as contact, friction and induction should be treated. Application of the |

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charges. 30.2 Explain the concept of electric field. 30.3 Explain the concept of capacitance, arrangement of capacitors and their applications. Capacitor and capacitance 30.3 Explain the concept of capacitance, arrangement of capacitors and their applications. | between point charges.- Coulomb’s Law e.g.”
F=Kq1q2 R2 F = qE - Electric field intensity or potential
gradient. - Force on a charge in an electric field:
- Electric potential and electric potential
energy. - Capacitors.
- Definition of capacitance.
- Factors affecting capacitance.
- Series and parallel arrangement of
capacitors - Energy stored in a charged capacitor
- Applications of capacitors.
| Gold Lead. Application of lighting conductor. Note: Permitivity of a material medium between point charges. Calculation involving electric field, electric field intensity and electric potential is necessary. Note Farad (F) as unit of capacitance. Use C = ÎµA d to compute capacitance where Îµ is permitivity of medium. Derivation of formula for energy stored in charged capacitor, Example: 2 |

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formulae for capacitance is not required). | |||

Current Electricity 30.4 Current electricity. Explain the production of electric current from cells. 30.5 Explain potential difference and electric current using an electric circuit. Electric Energy and Power energy and power. | 18. Simple cells 19. Defects of primary cell and itsremedies. 20. Leclanche wet and dry cells Danieletc. 21. Secondary cell: (Lead-acid-accumulator). 22. Structure of a secondary cell. 23. Maintenance of accumulator. 24. Simple electric circuit. 25. Current, emf and potential difference. 26. Ohm’s law and resistance. 27. Ohmic and non-Ohmic conductors. 28. Series and parallel arrangement of cellsand resistors. 29. Determination of effective emf and effective resistance for series and parallel arrangement. cells and batteries. power. its applications. of electrical energy using the relation mcÓ¨ = 1vt or = 12Rt R or 12Rt or V2t R = electrical energy 34. Galvanometer voltmeter using multiplier. | Give example of secondary cells as lead-aicd- accumulator, alkaline cadmium cell. Draw a well labeled diagram of lead- acid-accmulator. Rechargeability. Noe the unot of potential difference as volt (V), ampere (A) for current and Ohm (Î©) for resistance. Experimental verification of Ohm’s Law. Solve problems r=E-V I Ohmic and non- Ohmic conductors and factors affecting Ohmic conductors. Examples of applications are: Electric motor, ring boiler, electric kettle. Explain kilowatt- hour in commercial electricity as the Board of trade unit. |

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30.7 Describe the operations of shunt | Calculation involving the conversion of galvanometer to ammeter and to voltmeter is necessary. | ||

30.8 Define resistivity and conductivity of factors affecting electrical nce of a material. 30.9 Explain the measurement of electric current, potential difference, resistance emf and internal resistance of a cell. | - Factors affecting the electrical resistance of a material
- Definition and S.1. unit of resistivity. Definition of conductivity and its unit.
- Solve simple problems using R =Ï L
A - Principle of operation and the use of:
i. Ammeter. | Note : S.I. unit of resistivity as (Î©m) and that of conductivity as ((Î©m)-1. Also the relationship between resistivity (Ï) and conductivity (Ïƒ) as i = Ïƒ e resistivity, length, cross-sectional area (radius), temperature. Perform experiment using potentiometer determine and compare emf, p.d of cells. By using metre bridge, determine the unknown resistance in a circuit. | |

30. | Electrical Conduction Through Liquids30.1 Explain | 1. Definition of electrolysis 2. Electrolytes and non-electrolysis. 3. Charge carriers in electrolytes: anionsand cations. 4. Conduction of charge carriers through | Give examples of electrolytes and non-electrolytes. |

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electrolysis and its applications. | electrolyte.- Simple copper voltmeter.
- Uses of electrolysis
- Faraday’s laws of electrolysis and the
applications of electrolysis. | Mention examples of applications as electroplating, extraction of metals e.g. aluminum and purification of metals. | |

31. | Electrical Condition Through Gasses 31.1 Explain discharge through gasses, hot emissions and their applications. | 1. Discharge through gasses. 2. Hot cathode emission. 3. Applications of discharge throughgasses and hot cathode emission. | Example in neon signs, fluorescent tubes, etc. |

32. | Magnetism 32.1 Explain the properties of magnets and concepts of magnetization. | 1. Magnetic materials. 2. Processes of magnetization anddemagnetization. 3. Distinction between permanent andtemporary magnets. 4. The earth’s magnetism. 5. Angles of dip and declination. 6. Description and application of themarine compass. 7. Magnetic field due to bar magnet. 8. Interaction of fields of:i. Two bar magnets. ii. Bar magnets and earth’s field. and a solenoid. carrying conductor e.g. electric motor, moving-coil galvanometer. carrying current. electromagnets. electric bell, telephone earpiece. | List examples of magnetic materials: soft iron, nickel, cobalt, etc. Explain magnetic flux and density, magnetic field around a permanent magnet, a current- carrying conductor. Plot lines of force to locate neutral points using compass needle, iron fillings. Note units of magnetic flux and magnetic flux density as weber (Wb) and tesla (T) respectively. Compare the use of iron and steel as magnetic materials. Ilustrate with stroking and electrical method, also heating for de- |

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particle. 16. Problems involving the motion ofcharged particle in a magnetic field. | magnetization only. Illustrate the direction of the movement of the conductor using Fleming’s left-hand rule. Solve problem using F = BIL sinÎ¸ Use right grip rule or corkscrew rule to illustrate the direction of magnetic field. | ||

33. | Electromagnetic Induction 33.1 Explain the conceptof electro- magneticinduction. 33.2 Explainelectromagnetic induction and its applications.33.3 Explain the concept of inductance. 33.4 Explain Eddy current, power transmission and distribution. | 1. Concept of electromagnetic induction. 2. Electromagnetic induction: Faraday’s Law, Lenz’s Law. and Lenz’s law. a magnetic field. t. 6. TV and transformer. - Eddy current.
- Reducing Eddy current losses and
applications of Eddy current. - Power transmission and distribution.
- Reduction of power losses in high-
tension transmission lines. - Household wiring system.
| Determination of direction of current using Fleming’s right rule. The principle underlying the operations of direct and alternating currents should be treated. Note also that in equation E = Eo sin wt. Where E = induced emf, Eo = peak emf, w = angular velocity and t = time. Note unit of inductance as Henry (H). Use E = 1„2 LI2 to solve simple problems |

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(Note derivation of formula is not necessary). Method of reducing Eddy current and the application of Eddy current losses in induction furnace, speedometer etc. Example of reduction of power losses process is to transmit power at low current and high volage. Fuses, electrical installations: Line (L), Neutral (N) and Earth (E) should be discussed. | |||

34. | Simple A.C. Circuit 34.1 Explain the graphical representation of variation of e.m.f. and current in an a.c. circuit, peak and r.m.s values of 34.2 Analyse series circuit containing resistance, inductance and capacitance abd explain reactance, impedance, vector diagrams, resonance and power in an a.c. | - Graphical representation of variation of current in an ac circuit.
- Peak and r.m.d. values for a.c. circuit.
- Phase relationship between voltage and
current in the circuit’s elements; resistors, inductor and capacitor. - Resistance, inductance and
capacitance. - Reactance and impedance.
- Phase diagrams.
- Resonance in an ac series circuit.
- Power in an ac circuit
| Treat the graph equation I = Io sin Ï‰t for current and E = Eo sin Ï‰t for e.m.f. Lo = ˆš2 1rms Note the relationship between the peak and r.m.s. values. Eo = ˆš2 Erms Use To solve simple problems. (Deirvation of the formulae is not required). Differentiate between reactance and resistance. |

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**Recommended:** Nabteb syllabus for all subjects

circuit. | Application of resonance on TV and radio should be discussed. | ||

PART V ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS | |||

1. | Structure of Atom 35.1 Describe the models of the atom and the limitation of each. 35.2 Explain energy quantization. 35.3 Explain photoelectric effect. 35.4 Explain thermionic emission and X- rays: production, characteristics and applications. | - Models of the atom. ”¢ Thomson.
”¢ Rutherford. - Bohr, and
- Electron cloud.
- Limitations of each model.
- Quantization of angular momentum
(Bohr.) - Definition of energy quantization.
- Energy levels in the atom
- Absorption spectra and spectra of
discharge lamps. - Line spectra, bond, continuous from
hot bodies. - Concept of photoelectric effect.
- Definition of work function and
threshold frequency. - Einstein’s photoelectric equation.
- Calculations involving Einstein’s
equation. - Application of photoelectric effect.
- wave-particle duality of light
- Thermionic emission and its
application. - Production of X-rays.
- Types, characteristics and properties of
X-rays. - Application of X-rays.
- Hazards of X-rays and the safety
precautions. | hv = Eo + KEmax Discuss applications in TV, camera etc Illustrate the production of X-ray using a well- labelled diagram of X-ray tube. |

36. | Structure of the | 1. Composition of the nucleus of an atom: | Deine the term: |

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nucleus 36.1 Explain the composition of the nucleus. 36.2 Explain radioactivity. Identify the types and give examples of radioactive elements. emissions, describe their properties, uses and ways of detecting them. 36.4 Explain radioactive decay, half life, transformation of elements by radioactivity and the applications of radioactivity. | ”¢ Protons. ”¢ Neutrons. - Isotpes.
- Concept of radioactivity.
- Natural and artificial radioactivities
- Radioactive elements.
- Radioactive emissions.
- Properties and uses of radioactive
emissions. - Detecting radioactive emissions.
- Radioactive decay, half-life and decay
constant. - Transmutation of elements by
radioactivity. - Applications of radioactivity.
| nucleon number (A), proton number Z, neutron number (N) and state the equation A= Z+N. Treat also nuclides and their notations. Give examples as Uranium, Thorium, etc. Î» = 0.693 Î» problems. | |

36.5 Explain nuclear reactions fusion and fission. | 12. Types of nuclear reactions: ”¢ Fusion, and ”¢ Fission - Binding energy, mass defect and energyequation: E= MC2
- Principle of nuclear reactors and atomic bomb.
15. Radiation hazards and safety precautions. 16. Peaceful uses of nuclear reactions. | Give examples of aplications as in agriculture, industry, medicine, archeology, etc. | |

PART VI BASIC ELECTRONICS | |||

Basic Concepts in Electronics | 1. Distinction between conductors, semi- conductors and insulators using |

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47.1 Distinguish between conductors, semi- conductors and insulators in terms of conduction. 37.2 Explain doping of semi-conductors p- and n- type semi- conductors, majority and minority carriers. 37.3Explain I V characteristics of p n junction diode and rectification. transistors and single stage amplifier. | conductivity and modes of conduction.- Intrinsic conduction.
- Valance, conduction and forbidden
energy bands and their effects on conductivity of material. - Doping of semi-conductors.
- Extrinsic conduction p- and n- type
semi-conductors. - Majority and minority carriers
- I V characteristics of
p n junction diode. - Half and full wave rectification.
- Smoothening of rectified waveforms
using capacitors. - Modes of operation of
p-n-p and n-p-n transistors. - Operations of a single stage amplifier.
- Integrated circuits.
| Draw and label the circuit for a single stage amplifier and use it to explain its operations. You are only required to mention integrated circuits. |

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