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NABTEB Chemistry Syllabus 2021
This syllabus has been designed from the NBTE Curriculum for the purpose of examination. It is assumed that candidates must have covered the Integrated General Science and Mathematics syllabus at the Junior Secondary School (JSS) level. The schools presenting candidates for the National Technical Certificate (NTC) must have well-equipped laboratories.
Recommended: Nabteb syllabus for all subjects
AIMS Of NABTEB Chemistry Syllabus
The aims of the syllabus are to:
a. Provide knowledge in Chemistry which will be appropriate for students who require its application in their various trades/vocational studies and are likely to end their study of Chemistry at the NTC level.
- Serve as foundation for post-technical education.
- Provide students with the basic knowledge of the underlying concepts, principles and
generalizations of technological processes and products.
- Enable students carry out practical and project works stated in the teaching
syllabus, thus strengthen their ability in the scientific processes of observation,
application, problem solving and formulation of mental models.
- Expose students to the use of S.I. units and the IUPAC system of nomenclature.
- Create awareness in the students of the inter-relationship between Chemistry and their
various trades and its link with their work/job environment.
h. Inculcate in the students the culture of safety precautions.
The examination shall consist of two papers.
- 05-1 Paper I (2 1„2 hours) 150 marks (Theory)
- 05-2 Paper 2 (2 hours) 50 marks (Practical)
PAPER I: This is a theory paper. It consist of two Parts ”“ Part A and Part B.
Part A: This shall consist of fifty (50) multiple-choice objective questions, to be answered by candidates in 50 minutes for 50 marks.
Part B: This shall consist of five (5) essay questions from which candidates are expected to attempt FOUR (4) questions only. Each of the essay question carries 25 marks for a total of 100 marks in a duration of hour 1 hour 40 minutes.
PAPER 2 (Practical):
This shall be a 2 hours practical test, either the actual practical or alternative to practical. It shall consist of THREE (3) compulsory questions for a total of 50 marks. The actual practical shall be taken by schools WHILE the alternative to practical shall be taken by private candidates.
ALTERNATIVE TO PRACTICAL
The alternative to practical will test the knowledge of the practical skills and processes that the candidates are expected to have acquired in the practical activities that are prescribed in the syllabus.
|1.||Elements Compounds and Mixtures|
1.1 Explain the concepts of elements, compounds and mixtures.
1.2 Identify the properties e.g. melting point, boiling point, solubility etc of common substances in the laboratory. If may be used as basis for choice of separation methods.
|1. Concepts of Elements, Compounds and Mixtures.|
|Use the burning of candle to demonstrate or identify examples of physical and chemical changes in nature.|
Experimental illustration of the methods of separation of mixtures is required.
|2.||Structure of the Atom|
1.1 Explain the concepts of atoms, molecules and ions (atomic or molecular ions)
number, Isotopes, Relative atomic number (Ar), Relative molecular mass (Mr).
”¢ Arrangement of
electrons in the main
and sub-energy levels. 6. Orbitals.
”¢ Originofs,p,d,andf orbitals as sub-energy levels.
”¢ Shapes of s and p ”“
|J.J. Thompson’s Experiment should be given.|
Arrangement of electrons in the main shells (K,L,M) and calculation of relative atomic mass of chlorine as example is required.
1.10 Write and balance simple nuclear equation. 1.11 Explain the effects of
radioactive radiation on human beings and state the uses of radio isotopes.
Hund’s rule of Maximum Multiplicity and Pauli’s Exclusion Principle.
7. Nuclear Chemistry:
radiations (alpha, Beta
and Gamma rays).
applications of radioactivity, carbon dating, uses in agriculture, medicine and industry.
|It is instructive for teachers to point out that contrary to what obtains in chemical reaction, a new element may be created during a nuclear reaction.|
Symbols too, should be used to identify the type of radiation. Geiger Muller counter of detecting radiation should be described.
|3.||Periodicity of the Element|
1.1 State the periodic law and its application in the formulation of the periodic table.
|1. Periodic law and table. ”¢ Electronic|
configurations leading to group and periodic classifications.
”¢ The uniqueness of hydrogen atom in the periodic table.
2. Periodic properties of the first 30 elements, atomic size, ionization energy,
|Highlight the uniqueness of hydrogen in relation to the alkali metals on one hand, and the halogens on the other progression from:|
i. Metallic to
|of the halogens.|
1.4 Explain the meaning of the transition metals and their characteristic properties.
|electron affinity and electronegativity.|
properties of halogens.
displacement reaction of one halogen by another.
|nonmetallic character of elements.|
ii. Ionic ”“ covalent bonding in compound is required.Properties of chlorine as a typical halogen to include: i. Variable oxidation state.
ii. Reaction with H20 and alkali. should be taught. Note that many typical non-metals e.g. Nitrogen, Sulphur and Chlorine also exhibit variable oxidation states. Note also that zinc has a constant oxidation state of (+2).
4.1 Explain chemical bonding and list the types of chemical combinations.
|Teachers should present bonding as a process/tendency by which elements attain the structure of the nearest noble gas in the periodic table.|
Lewis dot structure for ionic and covalent compound should be treated.
|coordinate covalent/dative bonding. List factors which influence the formation of covalent compounds and outline the properties of covalent compounds.|
4.4 Draw the shape of simple molecules.
|solubility in various|
shapes i.e. (i) Linear (ii) Non-linear (iii) Tetrachedral.)
b. Hydrogen bonding.
|Models should be used where applicable.|
These should be demonstrated using metals such as Mg, Zn, Sn and Fe.
Description of formation and nature should be treated. Dipole-dipole and induced dipolar forces is required.
|5.||Stoichiometry and Chemical Reactions 5.1 Explain symbols,|
formulae and equations. List the rules for writing of balanced equations and write balanced chemical equations by applying the rules.
”¢ Chemical symbols. ”¢ Empirical and
molecular formulae. ”¢ Chemical equations. Combining power of
elements and oxidation
|Experimental illustration of the laws are required.|
|volume, mole ratio, amount of substance used, mole ratios to determine the stoichiometry of chemical reactions. Mole fraction|
5.4 Explain the concept of solution.
|”¢ Law of multiple proportion.|
3. Amount of substance:
as the number of carbon atoms in 1 mole (12.00g of 12C).
concentration and molar concentration volume and other quantities in chemical reactions.
made up of solvent and solute (in a single phase).
Preparation of some primary standard solutions using anhydrous Na2CO3, (COOH), 2H2O
|6.||States of Matter|
1.1 Define And explain the concept if law, theory and hypothesis as usual in science.
1.2 State the postulate of Kinetic theory of matter. Explain the nature of solids, liquids and gasses, change of state of matter
|1. Kinetic model of matter.|
liquids and gases.
|Changes of state of matter should be explained in terms of particle movement, illustration using: candle wax, water, iodine, sulphur, naphthalene etc for the changes of state.|
|and diffusion using the|
laws. Explain each law using the kinetic model. Represent the laws mathematically and graphically (where applicable). Derive the general gas lwaw.
Explain melting points and describe the structure, properties, and uses of diamond and graphite.
|diffusion of bromine/iodine/No2H from a sealed tube into an empty tube and spread of scent of ammonia in a room.|
intermediate state between gases and solids in the kinetic molecular sense.
Types and structure.
covalent and molecular
properties of the types
ions, molecules and atoms in three dimensions in the solid state.
|Illustration of Brownian motion using:|
Pollen grain/sulphur in water (viewed under microscope).
Smokes in glass container illuminated by a strong light from the side.
A dusty room being swept and viewed from outside under sunlight is required.
Teachers should endeavour to point out the differences between Dalton’s law and dalton’s atomic theory.
|”¢ Structures, properties and uses of diamond and graphite.||Experimental illustration of how to determine the boiling points is required.|
Specific packing arrangement knowledge is NOT required.
|7.||Energy and Energy Changes|
7.1 Define energy. List different forms of energy. State the laws of conservation of energy and explain its units.
|1. Energy changes in physical and chemical processes: Enthalpy, energy diagrams, forms of energy, energy content, transfer of energy.|
|2. Description, definition and illustrations of energy changes and effects:|
system as the sum of various forms of energy e.g. kinetic, potential, electrical, heat, sound, etc.
|Heat of neutralization of HCI and Na0H and heat of solution of sodium trioxothiosulphate pentahydrate in water should be measured and calculated in the laboratory as example. Heat of combustion can also be measured using low-flame spirit/kerosene lamp.|
|including energy contents of foods and fuels.|
”¢ Conditions for spontaneous changes as consequences of balance between tendency towards lower enthalpy and tendency toward higher entropy.
|8.||Acids, Bases and Salts.|
1.1 Define acid, base and salt. Explain Arrhenius theory of acids and basicity of an acid.
equations of all
efflorescent and hygroscopic substances.
acididity and alkalinity
|The use of deliquescent and hygroscopic substances as drying agents should be emphasized.|
|the behaviour of some|
theory of indicators: State the working oH ranges of methyl orange and phenolphthalein.
|of aqueous solutions ”¢ Simple calculations of|
pH and poH from given
bases in water as an example of equilibrium system.
AICI3, CuSO4, Na2CO3H, Na2S, CuNO3 CH3COONa in water. Compare with NaCI, CaCI2, Ba(NO3)2, K2SO4.
organic acids and
any pH dependent on relative amounts of acid and base forms.
in acid-base titrations.
concentrations, % purity, water of crystallization from the experimental result.
|Teachers should discuss the domestic and industrial applications of pH measurement sketching and interpretation of pH curves.|
Teacher is advised to approach this practically, testing the various solutions with litmust paper or litmus solution.
|Titration involving weak acids versus strong bases, strong acids versus strong bases, using the appropriate indicators and their application in quantitative determination should be treated.|
9.1 Explain the general principles of solubility.
solubilities of substance.
|Solubility should be expressed in Moldm-3 of solution.|
|10.||Rates of Reaction and Equilibrium Systems|
affecting rates of reactions. Discuss the theory of reaction rates.
equilibrium, Le Chatelier’s principle and factors affecting positions\ of equilibrium in chemical reactions.
of reaction for gaseous systems: Pressure may be used as concentration terms.
diagrams showing activation energy and enthalpy change.
”¢ Reversible and
|Experimental demonstration of the effect of the factors on equilibrium position of chemical reactions is required.|
1.1 Explain the concepts of oxidation and
reduction, reducing and oxidizing agents, redox reactions. Outline the rules for the determination of oxidation numbers of elements in substances.
1.2 Describe electrochemical cells and outline their applications.
primary and secondary
|Teachers sould emphasise the fact that oxidation and reduction are simultaneous and complementary processes illustration of substances that act as oxidizing and reducing agent in (a) different reaction|
(b) the same reaction e.g. disproportion IUPAC system of nomenclature is required.
5. Daniell cell, Lead acid accumulator, dry cell and their use as generators of electrical energy from chemical energy.
mechanism of electrolysis
with electrochemical cells
|Simple calculations based on the relation F = Le = 96,500C and mole ratios to determine mass, volume of gases, number of entities, etc.|
|12.||Basic Chemistry of Non- Metals|
12.1 Describe and explain thepreparation, properties, and qualitative tests of some selected elements.
|The teacher could mention the other allotropic modification of oxygen i.e. ozone (O3).|
The contributions of 2H the isotopes and to the making of 3H heavy water and hydrogen bomb respectively. Reference should be made to acidulated water.
Chlorine: Laboratory preparation, properties and
|Qualitative tests for the chloride ions should be|
|reactions. Uses of chlorine and halogen compounds Laboratory preparation of HCL gas is required|
industrial preparation and uses.
properties and uses.
general properties, CO & CO2 reparation, properties and uses.
8. Noble gases: Properties and uses.
Fountain experiment to illustrate solubility of HCL and NH3 Demonstration of the oxidation of Halides to other halogen by chlorine.
Coal ”“ different types and destructive distillation is required.
Candidates are expected to appreciate the fact that some noble gases do form compound when specially treated with fluorine.
|13.||Metals and Their Compounds|
13.1 Differentiate betweenmetals and non-metals. Discuss the general principles of extraction of metals. Describe the extraction of selected metals.13.2 Apply the activity series.
Fe, Cu, Ag and Au
Ba, Cu, Ag, Zn, Hg, Fe
and their uses.
|Experimental determination is required.|
The uses of alkali metals as precipitating agents in cation analysis should be stressed.
|14.||Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry|
14.1 Describe and explain themajor classification and nomenclature, separation and purification methods and general properties of organic compounds.
methods ”“ distillation, crystallization, drying, chromatography.
|Teachers should use models to illustrate the shapes of molecules of hydrocarbon and isomerism.|
Example should be limited to compounds having maximum if five carbon atoms.
|15.||Chemistry of Hydrocarbons|
1.1 Explain the major classification of
hydrocarbons. Write the general and structural formulae and identify their functional groups.
1.2 Explain the sources, properties and uses of the alkanes.
1.3 Describe and explain the process of refining petroleum.
c. Classifications of hydrocarbons.
saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Combustion, substitution reactions, cracking of large alkane molecules.
and major products.
|Test for unsaturation is required.|
The uses of haloalkanes and pollution effects should be treted.
|1.4 Explain the sources, properties and uses of alkenes.|
1.5 Explain the sources, properties and uses of alkynes.
1.6 Describe the structure and properties of the benzene (both physical and chemical).
|antiknock ”¢ Uses.|
addition reactions with halogens, bromine water, hydrogen halides: Oxidation: Hydroxylation with aqeous KMnO4
ethyne e.g. oxyacetylene (oxyethyne) in lamps.
reaction with those of Alkenes.
|Mechanisms not required.|
|16.||Chemistry of the Alkanos|
16.1 Explain the sources, nomenclature, structure, classification, properties and laboratory test of alkanas.
|Prepare ethanol by fermentation of starch. Mention should be made of the oxidation of primary and secondary alkanols to alkanals and alkanones respectively.|
|17.||Basic Chemistry of Alkanoic Acids and Alkanoates|
17.1 Explain the sources,nomenclature, structure, properties, uses and test of alkanoic acids and alkanoates
|1. Alkanoic acids: General formula of the alkanoic acids as CnH2n+1COOH|
structural formula and IUPAC names of the first few members.
|Teachers should point out the existence of diaalkanoic acid e.g. ethane ”“1-2 dioic acid and aromatic acid e.g. phenyl methanoic acid (benzoic acid).|
Acidic properties should be emphasized.
Recommended: Nabteb syllabus for all subjects
|properties . Fats and oils as a product of esterification.|
”¢ Saponification, hardening of oils.
and soapless detergents with respect to their action with soft and hard water. respectively.
Laboratory preparation of soapy detergents and soapless detergents.
|18.||Chemistry of Some Macro Molecules (Polymers)|
1.1 Explain the source, properties and
important uses of some macro-molecules.
”¢ Types of polymers.
classification and uses.
amino molecules linked by peptides or amide linkage.
Synthetic polymers: Classification and monomers and co- polymers.
|Simple examples of amino-acids should be given.|
Experimental differentiation of reducing and non reducing of sugars should be carried out.
|19.||Application of Chemistry in Industries and Environment|
19.1 Differentiate betweentypes of chemical industries, their raw materials and explain alloy, their composition
|1. Chemistry in nature.|
development of the
industries in Nigeria, and their corresponding raw materials.
siting of chemical
2. Extraction of metals:
common alloys: Cu, AL, Pb, and Fe and their uses.
depletion of the ozone
Food processing, fermentation including production of kenkey/gari, bread and alcoholic beverages e.g. local gin.
- 20.0 PRACTICALS
- 20.1 General skills and Principles
Candidates are expected to be familiar with the following skills and principles
Measurement of length, mass and volume.
Preparation and dilution of standard solutions.
Filtration, recrystallization and melting point determination. Measurements of heats of neutralization and solution.
Determination of pH values of various solutions by colorimetry. Determination of rates of reaction from concentration versus time curve.
- 20.2 Quantitative Analysis
Acid-base titrations: Preparation of standard solutions. Primary and secondary standard. The use of standard solutions of acid and alkalis and the indicators, methylorange and phenolphthalein to determine
(i) The concentrations of acids and alkaline solutions.
(ii) The molar masses of acids and bases and water of crystallizations.
(iii) The solubility of acids, bases and salts.
(iv) The percentage purity of acids and bases.
Candidates are expected to be conversant with calculations on both direct and back titrations. Calculation should be to 3 significant figures.
- 20.3 Qualitative Analysis:
No formal scheme of analysis is required.
(a) i. Characteristics tests for the following cations with dil. NaOH and NH3(aq).
(1) NH4+; Ca2+ Pb2+; Cu2+; Fe2+; Fe3r; A13+; and Zn2+
(2) Confirmatory tests for the above cations.
(b) i. Characteristic action of dil. HCI on solid samples or aqueous solutions and concentrated H2SO4 on solid samples of the following:
(c) CI-, SO32-, CO32-, NO32- , SO42-
ii. Confirmatory tests for the above anions.
comparative study of the halogens, displacement reactions.
(d) Characteristic tests of the following gasses: O2; H2; NH3; CO2; HCI; and SO2, H2S.
Note: that the use of litmus paper will not be accepted as a confirmatory
chemical test except for the identification of ammonia gas.
(e) Characteristic test tube reactions of the functional groups in the following simple organic compounds. Alkenes, Alkanols, Alkanoic acids, sugars (using Fehling’s and Benedict’s solutions only), starch (iodine test only) and protein (using the Ninhydrin test, xanthoproteic test, Biuret test and Millon’s test only).